The History of: Oyster Stew

Oyster boats at war off the Maryland shore (18...

Oyster Stew

                “On the eleventh of September last, a party of citizens of this state, understood to be a posse of an inspector, arrested several citizens of Maryland on Pokomoke sound, on the charge of taking oysters therein, in violation of the laws of Virginia.  In connection with the arrest, a citizen of Maryland was shot, and he has since died of the wounds then received.  The circumstance is on all accounts to be deeply deplored, the more because the alleged man was unresisting when fired upon, and was left to drift, wounded and bleeding, at the mercy of the wind and waves.”

      –              Governor James L. Kemper, Virginia, 1874

This statement highlights the conflict that arose in the Mid – Atlantic region following the Civil War.  This was a war waged over the most profitable enterprise in the region’s history.  This was a statement decrying the Oyster Wars of the Chesapeake Bay.

The oyster was a local commodity in the region and was a necessary addition to the diet of the Chesapeake people, but it wasn’t until after the Civil War and the depletion of the Northeastern oyster beds that the oyster became a commodity.  Large dredging vessels from New England came into the Chesapeake and began harvesting the natural beds of Maryland and Virginia.  This did not sit well with the native population who saw the dredging fleet of New England as the cause of the extinction of their own natural beds.  Laws were passed mandating that only native citizens could harvest oysters in the Bay, but that did not stop the well financed merchants of New England from coming down here and starting their own processing plants and harvesting the catch.

One of the large sticking points in the history of Maryland and Virginia was once again brought up to the forefront.  Since the founding of the charter for Maryland, Virginia has disputed the border between the two states.  The conflict over the harvesting of oysters only heightened this old dispute.  Once again the boundaries had to be drawn through legislation, piracy, theft, and armed conflict.

No other commodity has both benefited the Mid – Atlantic region and so diminished “the land of pleasant living.”  They say “Virginia is for lovers,” and that is not surprising considering the large number of oysters that have been pulled out of the bay region.  If the stories of the amorous impact of oysters are true then the Chesapeake is the birthplace of American fertility.  Hundreds of millions of bushels of oysters were pulled out of the Bay every year during the height of the oyster boom in the 1890’s.

The Native Americans preferred the cooking of oysters in their culinary tradition.  It was actually a revelation to the colonists to see the mounds of oyster shells marking the coastlines of native settlements.  The addition of cow’s milk was not common to the native diet, but the flavor profile of oysters and cream cannot be missed even than with the inclusion of nut milks as opposed to cow’s milk.

The Indians used to harvest oyster in the Chesapeake by waiting for low tide and the walking out to the large “rocks” and breaking off the oysters they wanted.  The oyster beds were so large at this time that they were a hazard to the navigation of ships in the bay when the colonists first arrived and the “rocks” were marked on navigation maps to warn ships of their presence.

Oysters were an important foodstuff in colonial times.  Not only was the quality exceptional, due to the salinity of the bay mixed with the freshwater tributaries, but it was also a familiar foodstuff from their European heritage.  It played well in the adaptation of the colonists since they were comforted by the familiarity of their homelands in the new world.

Oysters were once so common in the pre-civil war era that slaves would often rebel over eating them so much.  There is a story about General Walter Taylor, who sent Robert E. Lee a barrel of fresh oysters on Easter and turned his family meal into a feast for his family as well as all the neighbors.

During the civil war, oyster production dropped along the bay due to the conflict and the boats and the experienced captains were hired by both sides to thwart the efforts of their opponents.  Whether they were opportunists, or what we would call today, terrorists, is left for historians to debate the watermen of the Chesapeake have long been known for their rugged independence and disdain for government intrusion and involvement.  Many islands on the bay offered sanctuary to people who wanted to avoid the conflicts of the war.  The islands were left out of the battles and also provided a safe port for smugglers as well as pirates.

The latter half of the nineteenth century was the time of the great oyster wars of the Chesapeake Bay, which left the resources of the Bay almost depleted by the turn of the twentieth century.  Hundreds of millions of bushels of oysters were being dredged out of the bay and Shanghais, slavery and murder were not uncommon on the ships that sought to exploit the bounty of the bay in the worst way.  Many a crewman would wash up along the shores of the Chesapeake or be found floating down its tributaries.  Some were set off in small islands and left to die from exposure and starvation.   Crisfield, “The seafood capitol of the world,” was a rough town, known for bars and trains and men seeking to make a quick fortune at any cost.

It was called the gold rush of the Bay.  The politicians mounted a campaign to bring order to the waters, but despite a few successes, lawlessness reigned supreme.  The final shot was fired by the Maryland oyster police in 1959 with the death of Harvey King.  The police littered the boat with bullets killing him and his crew, who were completely unarmed.  This act came nearly a half a century after the height of the oyster wars and a great deal of the conflict was prolonged and created by the governing bodies of Maryland and Virginia who were both vying for the bounty of taxes and treasure that was being reaped from the Chesapeake Bay.  Conflicting laws and disputes over imaginary lines caused more problems and encouraged the bravado of the watermen on both sides to deliberately violate the laws of the neighboring state.  These actions are continued to this day with regard to crabbing and oystering in the Bay.  Virginia and Maryland legislatures are by far the worst enemy and enablers to the decline of the Bay.

This oyster war era also saw the development of the pride of the Maryland Armada, the Chesapeake skipjack, known locally as a bateau.  The skipjack is a two masted shallow hull ship that was easy to build and produce.  The shallow hull allowed it to travel into shallower waters then other dredge ships that ran deep lifts along the deeper beds of the Chesapeake Bay.             In order for the skipjack to function properly, the mast must be longer then the width of the ship.  This allowed the wind to pull the ship as it was illegal for a long time to use anything other than sail power to catch oysters in the Chesapeake.

The skipjacks were cheap to build and maintain and once dominated the coastal areas of the Chesapeake.  Now only a few remain in service due to the decline of the oyster population and the more efficient technique of farming oysters has taken over commercial harvests.

They once comprised the largest sailing fleet in the world, but most were abandoned and left to rot more often as the population of the oyster declined due to overfishing and pollution.  There was also a big scare recently with the MSX virus that was thought to be brought over here by efforts to bring seed oysters over from Asia, but could also have been due to ballast being discharged from ships from foreign ports.

At this point in time we still see the oysters being removed from the liquor before being cooked.  This was before the packing industry myth about the quality of the “oyster liquor,” really took hold.  Most packing houses in Crisfield were graded on the liquor content used in packing their oysters.  The highest rated used the least amount and thus provided more oyster for the money.

During the oyster boom canning and the expansion of the United States into the west was the great decider in this market.  Canning allowed them to preserve the catch beyond the normal allowance and it allowed them to be shipped all over the country.  Oysters became a cheap source of protein for settlers traveling west and Maryland became a hub for immigrants coming into the United States to take the C & O Canal or the B & O Railroad to the western edges of the new world.

Oysters are harvested in many ways. Hand tonging is an ancient art form that consists of two large metal rakes, up to twenty feet long, snaked together into a large claw.  The tonger lowers the tongs over a low sided ship and “feels” around the “rock” for a good grip.  He then closes the tongs and the jaws latch on and break away a large piece of the oyster rock.  He then pulls this upward hand over hand and empties it on the culling board, once this is full, he will cull the oysters by breaking apart the large rocks and tossing any small oyster back.  Some of the oyster beds in the Bay are classified only for the use of tongers and others for dredging.  This is a major conflict between watermen, since they both feel that the other beds are more productive and should be open to them.

The other way is dredging in which a rake is dragged behind a vessel where it latches onto the rock and rakes in the catch.  This is referred to as a “lick.”

Tonging is considered to be less of environmental threats since they do not take as many oysters and they usually only take high quality oysters that fetch a higher price on the market.  This is only true of hand tonging, power tonging is considered to be far more invasive and damaging to the Bay and the oyster beds and actually destroys the oyster beds.

At least 75% of the oyster population of the Chesapeake Bay was harvested between the years of 1860 and 1920.  There were once so many oysters in the Bay that they could filter the same quantity of water as the entire Chesapeake Bay in four to five days.  By recent estimates the population of oysters in the Bay will take four hundred days to filter the same quantity of water.  The snapping of the shell of the oyster is often confused by most as an oyster feeding, but in fact the shell closing actually drives out the water and food from the shell instead of taking it in.  When the shell is open it is actually feeding.  The closing of the shell is a defense mechanism.

A sign of the enormity of the impact of oysters in the region can be seen along the Eastern Shore where the streets of Smith Island, Crisfield and even Baltimore were once lined with crushed oyster shells.

The canning and packing houses of Crisfield were legendary.  In fact the town itself was built in a large part on the remnants of oyster shells.  Many people would buy plot of undeveloped shoreline in the expectation that they could use crushed oysters to fill in the land.  Crushed oyster shells were also ground and sold as a source of calcium as well as used as filler in building compounds.

Smoked Oyster Ravioli with Oyster Stew Sauce

Christopher Gobbett

2009

 

For the Ravioli:

 

1 Tin Smoked Oysters (or fresh oysters seasoned with smoked sea salt.  This can also be done with fresh oysters smoked on a grill.  Reserve the liquor for the gelatin if you use fresh.)

1 Pkg. Gelatin, Unflavored

I tsp. lemon juice

Reserved liquid from the tin

Pasta dough is created using the typical ratio of three parts flour to two parts egg.  (You can season and flavor this any way you want and follow any recipe you are comfortable with.)

 

For the sauce:

¼ Cup White Wine

½ Cup Heavy Cream

4 Slices Applewood Bacon (Crumbled)

1 Leek (Diced)

2 Plum Tomatoes (Diced)

4 Each Artichoke Hearts (Diced)

Corn starch slurry as needed

 

                Take the smoked oysters and place them in a blender.  Bloom the gelatin in the lemon juice and oyster liquor for five minutes.  Heat in a small pan and add to the blender.  Puree the oysters and then strain the liquid through a fine cheesecloth.  Pour this into a small container and allow to set in the refrigerator. 

                Once the gelatin has set, use a melon baller to make small oyster gelatin balls and then place on top of a rolled out sheet of pasta that had been brushed with egg.  Repeat the process leaving at least one inch between the balls.  (The remaining gelatin left in the container can be heated briefly in a microwave and set in the refrigerator again to set.  Repeat the process until all the gelatin is used.)  Top the gelatin balls with another sheet of pasta and press down gently creating a seal between the two sheets of pasta.  Cut into small bite sized squares using a ravioli cutter or a pizza wheel.  Place on a cookie sheet that has been dusted with cornmeal and wrap tight.  Place in the freezer until ready to use. 

                For the sauce: Add the bacon to a pot and sauté with the leeks until tender.  Add the white wine and allow to reduce.  Add the tomatoes and artichoke hearts right before the cream so they will retain their shape and not break down in the sauce.  Heat until just boiling and thicken with corn starch if necessary.  The corn starch emulsion will also help to disguise the oil from the bacon and blend it into the sauce

                Finishing: heat about a cup of water in a sauté pan to a simmer and place the ravioli into the water.  Allow to cook gently until the shape of the pasta begins to change.  The bulge in the center will begin to melt and this means it is ready.  Have the sauce heated and serve immediately.  The result will be an “explosion of liquid oyster in your mouth. 

The oyster stew has changed only a little in the years since it was created out of necessity on the shores of the bay.  You can still find an original style oyster stew in restaurants all over the region, but there are a lot of creative additions to the basic recipe.  Only one step stands between oyster stew and oyster chowder and it is only due to the waterman culture of this recipe that it exists in its original form.  If the settlers of the bay region had moved further inland, they would have had the pork and potatoes available to them as their northern counterparts had.

Simple seafood dishes are the tradition of the Mid – Atlantic region.  We tend to highlight the flavor and profile of the essence of the main ingredient; this is similar in manner, but not quite as extreme as the Japanese style, but is similar in approach.

Oyster stew has varied little since its inception.  The main thing which keeps it so similar to its original design is the fact that adding additional ingredients would classify the dish as something else entirely.  Cream and oysters are a classic flavor profile and a way of enhancing a rich food with an even richer one.  The dish is a perfect companion to the cold wintery months when oysters are at their peak.

The Evolution:

The Oyster Bar, Grand Central Terminal, New Yo...

In its most primitive form, this dish is essentially just oysters and milk.  Those are the primary ingredients in the stew, but much more has happened in the course of history.

Oyster Soup[1]

1742

 

                Put one pint of oysters into a sauce-pan with pepper and salt.  Cover at once and cook until gills of oysters begin to curl.  Heat one pint of milk and add tablespoonful of flour and butter which have been mixed together.  Add to oysters slowly and add salt and pepper.  A beaten egg added to the soup before serving is a great addition.  Serve sprinkled with chopped parsley. 

Here is a prime example of the dish at its earliest conception.  Just oysters, salt, pepper and milk thickened slightly with a liaison of flour and butter.

Oyster Soup[2]

1807

 

                Some day I hope to feel rich enough to make Mrs. Randolph’s oyster soup:  First you simmer for a long time a batch of the bivalves with quantities of Ham (Virginia of course) and seasonings; then you throw away everything but the broth, add fresh oysters and egg “yelks” and heavy cream and just warm through.  But I am probably too much of a Lee – too frugal – to try it, though like others, I am immensely fond of oysters.

In this version, the oysters and ham are cooked to create a broth which is then strained and discarded and added to a cream base and thickened with egg yolks.  The broth here is used as the flavor basis for the soup and the oysters themselves are thrown away.  This would never happen in the world today, where the value of oysters is so high that customers expect to recive oysters in their soup.

To Stew Oysters[3]

1853

 

                Open them and throw them in a stew pan, with a lump of butter; make a thickening of flour and water, salt and pepper, and stir it in just as the oysters boil:  when they are done, take them up in a deep covered dish, with buttered toast in the bottom.

This would qualify more as a bisque since it uses the bread as a thickening agent, but today we would probably see this as more of a casserole.

Bisque of Oysters[4]

1911

 

Place about 30 medium – sized oysters in a saucepan together with their own juice and poach them over a hot fire, after which, drain well; then fry a shallot colorless in some butter, together with an onion, sprinkle over them a little curry and add some oyster juice, seasoning with salt and pepper.  Pound the oysters into a good firm paste, moistening them a little bit with their own juice, and strain through a fine tammy cloth.  Warm them over a fire, but do not let them boil; add a small quantity of thickening of potato flour mixed with a little water.  When about to serve incorporate some cream and fine butter, garnishing with some chopped oysters and mushrooms, mixed with breadcrumbs and herbs.  Add a little seasoning and salt, pepper and nutmeg, some raw egg yolks, and roll this mixture into ball shaped pieces, place them on a well buttered baking sheet in a slack oven and poach them, then serve.

 

In this recipe we see the inclusion of mushrooms into the soup.  This is another classic flavor profile and would be a delicious addition to any oyster stew.

Oyster Stew[5]

1932

 

                Two tablespoonfuls butter, one teaspoon flour, one cup of rich milk, five to eight oysters, depending on size, salt and pepper, and a few drops of Worcestershire sauce.

                Melt butter, add flour and blend well, being careful not to let it burn.  Add milk and stir until smooth and boiling.  Now add oysters with a little of their own juice, being careful that no bits of shell cling to them.  Let come to a boil again, cooking just a few seconds – until the edges of the oysters curl.  Serve at once. 

 

In this we see the addition of Worcestershire sauce.  This is more in keeping with a slightly deeper and richer flavor, since the Worcestershire sauce will add a great deal of unami to the dish.

Stewed Oysters No. 1[6]

1940

 

                1 Pint oysters, ½ wine glass sherry, 1 tablespoon vinegar, 1 heaping teaspoon cracker crumbs, salt and pepper, nutmeg, allspice

                Drain oysters; boil and skim liquor.  Then boil the liquor 5 minutes, with other ingredients, excepting the wine and vinegar.  Then, add the oysters, and let simmer until curled; add wine and vinegar, and serve.

 

                This recipe contains both sherry wine and vinegar, but does not include the milk or cream.  The acidity of the wine and vinegar would curdle the dairy products anyway.  This is more of a natural broth soup than the traditional oyster stew.

Eastern Shore Stew[7]

1959

 

1 Pt. Oysters (Shucked with Liquor Juice)                            

2 Medium Potatoes (Diced)

1 Lg. Onion (Diced)                                                                        

4 Strips Bacon

 

                Fry bacon, remove and sauté onion until golden.  Set aside.  Boil potatoes in oyster liquor until done.  Add onion, fat and bacon (cut into small pieces,) then drain oysters.  Let cook until edges curl.  Add salt, pepper to taste.  Serve at once. 

                (This recipe was given to my father by a dredge boat captain from the Eastern shore: hence the name. 

This is more along the lines of a chowder as opposed to the oyster stew, but it again does not contain any cream or dairy products found traditionally in a chowder.  This is sort of an outgrowth of the 1940 recipe of using the oyster liquor as the basis for the soup.

Oyster Bisque[8]

1963

 

In a 2 Quart saucepan:

SIMMER               1 Qt.                      Oysters put through a grinder with

                                ½ Cup                    Diced celery in

                                3 Cups                   Chicken stock (3 Boullion cubes and 3 cups of water)

                                                                For about 15 minutes until oysters are cooked.

                                                                Strain.

In a 3 Qt. Saucepan:

MELT                     4 Oz.                      Butter or Margarine

ADD                       ¼ Cup                    Flour and cook until thickened

ADD the strained stock and

                                2 Cups                   Light cream and cook until smooth

CORRECT the seasoning with salt, pepper and a few drops of Tabasco sauce.

UPON SERVING

ADD       a few drops green vegetable coloring to bring to light green.

GARNISH with additional chopped watercress leaves.

This recipe adds chicken stock to the soup to stretch the broth and add another dimension of flavor.  The oysters are ground and used to create an oyster broth to which the cream is added after the oysters themselves are thrown out.  It is sort of a throwback to the 1807 recipe where this was done.

The unusual thing about this is the inclusion of green food coloring.  I cannot figure out why anyone would want a green soup, except maybe as a St. Patty’s Day dish.

Creamed Oysters[9]

1977

 

1 Cup Sunflower Seed Butter                                    

1/3 Cup Hickory Milk or Medium Cream

2 Cups Fine Cornmeal                                                   

½ Tablespoon Ground Dried Spicebush Berries

2 Cups Small Shucked Oysters                                                  

 

                Melt the seed butter in a saucepan.  Add the cornmeal, stir, and blend until crumb like.  Spread the mixture evenly across the bottom of a shallow baking dish.  Add the oysters, evenly spaced on a bed of cornmeal.  Sprinkle with the hickory milk or cream and season with the spicebush berries.  Top with the remaining cornmeal crumbs.  Bake for 20 minutes in a preheated 350 degree oven.  Serve hot.

This recipe was found in a book on Native American cooking.  I cannot verify that this recipe was ever used in the pre-colonial days, but it seems to keep to the traditional elements with the substitution of butter and cream.  The fine corn meal they are referring to is marketed under the term “Masa.”

Oyster Bisque[10]

1981

 

2 Cups Fresh Oysters                                                     

4 Tablespoons Butter

2 (10 Oz.) Cans Chicken and Rice Soup                  

½ Cup Soft Bread Cubed

1 Small Onion, Chopped                                              

2 Stalks Celery, Chopped

1 Bay Leaf                                                                           

1 Tablespoon Parsley (Fresh or ½ Teaspoon dried Parsley)

2 Teaspoon Salt                                                               

½ Teaspoon Pepper                                                       

2 Cups Milk, Heated

 

                In a 4 quart pan simmer oysters, and butter for about 3 minutes.  Add next 8 ingredients.  Simmer 10 minutes remove bay leaf.  Drain through colander reserving all liquid.  Put drained ingredients through course blade of grinder.  Return all to soup pan.  Add heated milk.  If bisque is not thick enough, make roux of 1 tablespoon water and 1 teaspoon flour.  Add to soup.  Simmer over very low heat, stirring occasionally.  Do Not Boil!  Makes 8 – 10 Cups.

Here we see the industrial food movement making its mark on the dish.  This recipe includes the use of a pre-made condensed soup to take the place of the chicken broth used in the 1963 recipe.  The rice and bread act as thickeners in place of the flour and butter.  There is usually a great deal of fat and salt contained in canned condensed soups, so if you try this dish, adjust your seasoning with that in mind.

Oyster Stew[11]

1981

 

1 Pint Standard Oysters with Their Liquor

Dumplings (Recipe to Follow)

1 ½ Cups Water Including Oyster Liquor

Salt and Pepper to Taste

1 Small Onion, Finely Diced

1 Cup Evaporated Milk

3 Tablespoons Butter

 

                Cook oysters in 1 ½ Cups liquor – water until the oysters curl.  Pinch tiny dumplings from dough and drop into cooking oysters.  Add diced onion and cook over medium high heat for about 15 minutes or until dumplings are no longer doughy.  Heat milk, water, and butter.  When hot pour into oyster stew.  Serve at once.

 

Dumplings:

½ Cup Flour

½ Teaspoon Salt

½ Teaspoon Baking Powder

1/8 Cup Water

 

                Sift Flour, salt, and baking powder.  Add water, a little at a time, and knead to form dough.  Pinch off tiny dumpling balls ¼ inch round for oyster stew.

This one contains a rather usual oyster stew but with the addition of dumplings, to keep this in line with modern thinking, you may want to add the oysters and the dumplings to the soup at the same time, so you don’t overcook the oysters.

Oyster Bisque[12]

1997

 

½ Cup Uncooked Long Grain Rice                                            

4 Cups Chicken Broth

4 Tablespoons Butter                                                                    

18 Oysters, Shucked, Reserve Liquid

Salt and Pepper                                                                                               

3 Dashes Tabasco

1 ½ Cups Heavy Cream                                                                 

¼ Cup Cognac

1 Tablespoon Chopped Fresh Parsley

 

Cook rice in chicken broth in a saucepan until done.  Add butter.  Drain rice and discard broth.  Finely chop 12 oysters.  Add to cooked rice.  Season with salt and pepper.  Add Tabasco.  Add heavy cream.  Heat over medium heat just to the point of boiling.  Add remaining oysters.  Heat until oysters curl at the edges.  Add cognac and simmer for 2 minutes.  Ladle soup into heated bowls, making sure 1 whole oyster is in each bowl.  Garnish with parsley.

Yield: 6 servings

This is the long version of the recipe mentioned in 1981.  In this case you are making the chicken and rice soup instead of buying it in a can.  It also adds cognac instead of the more traditional sherry or white wine, but feel free to substitute either of those in this recipe.

Chickahominy River Oyster Stew[13]

2007

 

1 Pint Oysters with Liquor                                                          

1 Bottle (8 Oz.) Clam Juice

1 Tablespoon Hot Water                                                             

¼ Tbsp. Crushed Saffron

1 Tablespoon Butter                                                                      

1 Cup Coarsely Chopped Red Onion

1 Cup Peeled and Coarsely Chopped Celery                       

¼ Cup Flour

¾ Teaspoon Ground Coriander Seeds                                   

3 Cups Half – and – Half

¼ Cup Chopped Fresh Flat Leaf Parsley                                

¼ Teaspoon Salt

1/8 Teaspoon Ground Cayenne Pepper

 

                Drain the oysters in a colander over a bowl, reserving the liquor.  Add enough clam juice to the reserved liquor to equal 1 cup; set aside.   Coarsely chop the oysters.  Combine the hot water and saffron in a small bowl set aside.

                Melt the butter in a large saucepan over medium heat.  Add the onion and celery and cook for five minutes, stirring frequently.  Stir in the flour and coriander seeds and cook for 1 minute.  Add the clam juice mixture, saffron water and half and half, stirring with a whisk.  Cook until thick (about 10 minutes), stirring frequently.  Add the oysters, parsley, salt and pepper.  Cook until edges of oysters curl.

This version of the dish incorporates several unusual ingredients into the dish including saffron and coriander seeds.  Saffron is pretty mild in flavor and would blend well with the soup, but coriander seeds can be overpowering, so tread lightly with them.  It is best to toast the seeds quickly before using them, this will release the essential oils and you will need less of them to do the job.  If you toast them and grind them, you could then finish the soup with a light sprinkle on top of the bowl as opposed to adding it into the soup.

Oyster Stew

Cosmos Club

Executive Chef: Bernard Meehan

2008

 

½ Gallon Oysters

1 # 5 Can Clam Juice

1 Gallon Milk

Dash Tomato Juice

 

Add the milk in a pot and simmer.  Add a little tomato juice.  Too much will curdle the milk.  Add the liquor from the oysters and the clam juice.  Simmer and reduce.  Add Oysters just before serving. 

 

                This is the very basic soup I used to make at the Cosmos Club.  It is very simple and highlights the oysters.  Do not add too much of the tomato juice or the milk will curdle.  One great way of doing this soup on the line was to heat the clam juice, milk and tomato juice and then place the raw oysters in the bottom of the soup tureen and pour the liquid over it when we got an order, it literally only takes seconds for the oysters to cook in the boiling hot broth.


[1] The Williamsburg Art of Cookery or Accomplished Gentlewomen’s Companion by Ms. Helen Bullock: Colonial Williamsburg Inc. 1938

[2] The Robert E. Lee Family Cooking and Housekeeping Book by Anne Carter Zimmer: University of North Carolina Press 1997

[3] A Quaker Women’s Cookbook: The Domestic cookery of Elizabeth Ellicott Lea: William Woys Weaver: Stackpole Books 2004

[4] Rufus Estes’ Good Things to Eat: The First cookbook by an African-American chef by Rufus Estes: Dover Publications, Inc. 2004

[5] Eat, drink & be merry in Maryland: Frederick Philip Stieff, john Hopkins University Press 1998

[6] Chesapeake Bay Seafood: Sherwood Brothers Incorporated: 1940 Ferdinand C. Latrobe Printed by The Horn – Shafer Company, Baltimore, Maryland

[7] Treasured Recipes of Old St. Mary’s 1634 – 1959: compiled by the alumni of St. Mary’s Academy Leonardtown, Maryland: 1959

[8] Maryland’s Way: The Hammond – Harwood House Cookbook by Mrs. Lewis R. Andrews & Mrs. J. Reaney Kelly: Press of Judd & Detweiler Inc. 1966

[9] Native Harvests: American Indian Wild Food and Recipes by E. Barrie Kavasch: Dover Publications, Inc.  1977

[10] Seafood Recipes from Yorktown, Virginia by Marion Hornsby Bowditch 1981

[11] Mrs. Kitching’s Smith Island Cookbook by Frances Kitching & Susan Stiles Dowell: Tidewater Publishers 1981

[12] Capitol Celebrations A Collection of Recipes by the Junior League of Washington: Favorite Recipe Press 1997

[13] Chesapeake Bay Soups by Whitey Schmidt:  Marian Hartnett Press 2007

About midatlanticcooking

Chef in the Mid-Atlantic region for over 20 years. Painter, writer and traveler.
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