History of the: Crab Cakes

 Crab Cakes

A Delicious Crabcake at the Middleton Tavern

No other dish so signifies Maryland cuisine as the crab cake. This dish has transcended all culinary frontiers.  Every cuisine in the world has adapted this basic dish and made it their own.  It can be made with any kind of crab and any number of ingredients or spices.  The Blue crab has always been the standard for this recipe and is considered unilaterally to be the ideal choice for this dish.  It can be made with any ratio of crab meat from all jumbo lump to a blend of all the meat from the crab.  This dish was prepared by Native Americans long before the arrival of the colonial settlers and was one of the first native dishes adopted by the settlers of the Chesapeake region.

The picking of crabs has always been one of the most labor intensive jobs in the seafood industry.  There is no machine that can sort through the cartilage and shell to create the desired results needed for this recipe.  It has, and it seems always will be, done by hand.

Every Marylander has a special recipe for this dish that is considered to be the best or the true way of making crab cakes.  (Mine, of course, is the best.)  Unlike the Maryland crab soup there are three distinctive styles of crab cake along the Chesapeake.  They are as follows:

North: the north of Baltimore and up into the Pennsylvania, Delaware region we get the crab cake that is bound together with a thick cream sauce thickened with a roux.  This crab cake must be made ahead and allowed to rest for several hours before it can be cooked.  This will allow time for the moisture to be absorbed by the starch and the crabmeat itself.  It is similar in construction to a very thick cream of crab soup that is then molded and fried. Any number of ingredients can be included in this variation.

East: The Eastern Shore crab cake is known for its lack of any adornment.  It is essentially a seasoned crab meat patty bound loosely with egg and lightly coated with flour.  This dish highlights the crab meat, but does not include any ingredient or garnish to distract from the natural flavor of the crab itself.  It is often scooped onto a tray and fired under a broiler for color and then baked in an oven to set the egg.  This has always been considered the truest version of the original concept solely due to its lack of any adornment.

West:  The “land lover’s” crab cake or the “continental” crab cake as it is sometimes called is what most people think of when they have a crab cake.  It is based on the eastern shore crab cake but incorporates a binding agent such as bread crumbs, cracker crumbs of some other kind of filler to help hold the cake together.  This recipe can incorporate any number of ingredients and the quality of this cake is usually judged by the amount of filler used in proportion to crab meat.  The higher the quality, the closer it gets to the Eastern Shore crab cake.  This recipe is an outgrowth of the original and is much more popular due to its texture and ability to incorporate other ingredients and styles of cooking into it.

There is a forth category of crab cake that come from the European tradition that incorporates pureed shrimp or scallops as a binder for the crab meat, but this recipe is not spoken of along the Chesapeake.  The European “seafood cakes” have little or no connection to what is now the definitive dish in Maryland cuisine.

By 1920, the crab grounds of New Jersey had given out to overfishing making the Chesapeake region the dominant source of crab meat for the entire country.  Until the advent of refrigeration and fast transport, crabs were limited to sale on the eastern seaboard, but trains with refrigerated capacity soon found their way to the Eastern Shore and became the foundation of the Crisfield packing market, making Crisfield, the “Seafood Capitol of the World” for several decades.

There are several methods for catching crabs along the Chesapeake Bay.  The noblest method is to use a trot line.  This is a long cable baited at intervals and coiled in a barrel and strung out along the edges of the sandbars.  The watermen then trace and retrace the line scooping up the crabs that take the bait in a net.  It is a very primitive method, and very time consuming, but does not diminish the crab population or damage the environment.  In this method of crabbing, one is going for quality over quantity.  Salted eel and other trash fish are often used as bait, a common bait used was mannose (soft shell clams), but the increased demand for them from the northeast has raised the value of the harvest well beyond that of trash fish and eel, so it is rarely used now.

The more common commercial method is called potting.  This is where a baited crab pot is lowered into the water and left to attract crabs that once get into the pot cannot get out.  Buoys made from old bleach bottles and plastic containers are attached to drift lines to mark the location of the pots, so they can be readily retrieved. This method produces a larger quantity of crabs, but it also requires more investment in crab pots that can break and rust away after every season.  While inexpensive, they do require a great deal of up front capitol to finance this method of commercial harvest.

The final method is raking or dredging for crabs and it is illegal in many areas and impractical in all areas.  This method runs a rake like claw along the edges of the sand bars ripping up trenches and sea grasses which provide shelter and mating ground for crabs.  The areas in which this method is used produce low yields of crabs for years afterward due to the damage done by this method of harvest.

There is another method of dredging or “combing” along the sea grass areas.  This is done to rake up soft shell crabs or doublers.  This practice is still looked down upon, since its efficiency is thought to reduce the crab population at a critical point during the mating process.

Watermen in the Mid – Atlantic region as a superstitious bunch, as many are who have to place their fortunes at the mercy and uncertainty of Mother Nature, watermen live off of the water of the Bay and sometimes their fortune is good, while other times it is not.  The modern world would say that the application of logical fallacy is the source of superstition, (I.E. denoting an illogical cause as the source of an undesirable effect), but to a waterman, faith and reason do not necessarily coincide when dealing with the uncertainties of their livelihood.  The following are examples of some of the common superstitions of the watermen:

 

Waterman returning home, Tangier Island

  1.      Anything Blue
  2.      Three crows flying across the boat’s bow
  3.      A hatch cover up – side down
  4.      Using a red brick as ballast
  5.      Having a leaf, nut or twig from a walnut tree on board
  6.      Allowing a women on board
  7.      Changing the name of the boat

               

Like most forms of folklore, many of these superstitions may have at one point been established for a reason.  The blue of a boat may have made it difficult to see on the horizon against the water.  Many reasons may have led to the various superstitions of the watermen, a good harvest with a walnut on board is just as likely as one without, but a chance circumstance made this legume a scapegoat for the failure of a day’s labor.  Watermen themselves have become a facet of Mid – Atlantic folklore as they are rapidly disappearing due to diminishing harvests and increased regulation by the government.

In 1978 A fictional master piece was released by James A. Michener.  His novel Chesapeake followed the history of the Chesapeake region and the history of Maryland.  The novel paid special emphasis on the food of the region.  In The first chapter Scar – chin replies to Pentaquod about the crab,

 “A crab provides little food, so he is not easy to eat.  But the little he does offer is the best food under the sky.  To eat a crab, you must work for it, which makes you appreciate him more.  He is a blessing, the remembrance.  And no man or woman ever ate enough.”[1]

 

The recipe he provides later in the book mirrors the native appreciation of the crab as an important food source.

“But when she took the meat, as her mother had taught her and mixed it with herbs and vegetables and cornmeal, and formed it into small cakes and fried them in sizzling bear fat.  She produced one of the finest dishes the river would ever know. ‘Cakes of crab,’ she called them, and Pentaquod found them subtle and delicious”.  [2]

Most crab cakes are molded and then tossed under the broiler to color and then finished off in the oven.  The broiler created the golden color typical of the Maillard reaction, and the heat of the oven finishes cooking the egg by bringing it up to 140 degrees for 15 seconds.  The Maillard reaction is named for the chemical process of glycerol with sugars and amino acids.  In his dissertation in 1912, he explained the importance of this reaction on the flavor perceived in grilled meat, bread crust and roasted coffee and chocolate.  It is not, as first perceived the caramalization process, but rather a reaction caused by the heat acting on the amino acids in a given food product.  The natural sugars are brought into play and the acids and glycerol are broken down and enhance the perceived flavor of a product.

There is a tradition in crab picking houses along the Eastern Shore to sing as you worked this was done in order to establish a rhythm to the tedious process of repetitive motion and to increase productivity.  This tradition has carried on in the region for hundreds of years.  This is a crab cake that we made in a seafood restaurant I used to work at.  In true Chesapeake fashion we even made a song to sing while we made them.

Wanted Baked or Fried

 

(Sung to Bon Jovi’s Wanted Dead or Alive)

 

“It’s all the same,

Only the grease is changed.

Every day,

It seems we use more Old Bay.

Another place,

Where the French fries are so cold.

We pick all night,

And we mix some more:

We got crab cakes,

On a Kiser roll they ride.

And they want them

Baked or fried.

They want them,

Baked or fried.”

 

“Sometimes they eat,

Sometimes it seems like days.

And the people we feed,

Never seem to go away.

Sometimes we tell the day,

By the power of crab stink.

And the times when were alone,

When all we do is sleep.

We got crab cakes,

On a Kiser roll they ride.

And they want them (want them!)

Baked or fried.

They want them, (want them!)

Baked or fried.”

 

“Ooh!  Their fried!”

 

“Burned!”

 

“We got crab cakes,

On a Kiser roll they ride.

And they want them (want them!)

Baked or fried.”

 

“And I walk these streets,

A shot of tartar sauce on my back.

We play for keeps,

Cause we don’t give money back!

We go nowhere,

And still were standing tall!

We seen a million faces,

And we feed them all!”

 

“We got crab cakes,

On a Kiser roll they ride.

And they want them (want them!)

Baked or fried. (Baked or fried!)

Want them (want them!)

Baked or fried!

(Repeat)”

 

 

Crab Souffle

Crab Cake Clouds Recipe

Christopher Gobbett

2010

 

6 Jimmy Crabs (Heavy)                                                                 

2 Eggs (Separated)

Crabbies (Old Bay Seasoned Crackers)                                  

2 Tbsp. Mayonnaise

1 Tbsp. Dijon Mustard                                                                  

2 Dash Worcestershire Sauce

 

                Steam crabs for 15 minutes in a pot with J & O crab spice.  Allow crabs to cool and pick out the crab meat.  Save the yellow fat from the shell and add to crabmeat.  While crabs are cooling, crumble crab crackers into a fine crumb.  In a small bowl combine mayonnaise, mustard, egg yolks and Worcestershire sauce and mix.  In a separate bowl, whip egg whites to a stiff peak.  Add crab meat to mayonnaise mixture and then add egg whites and gently fold and turn the bowl until combined adding crumbs as needed.  Gently pinch out mixture and place in ring mold and press gently to fill mold*.  Place cakes directly under broiler until brown and then take out.  Lower temperature of oven to 350 degrees and then place cakes inside until cooked through. 

*This procedure is very delicate.  You must be very careful not to deflate all of the air you worked so hard to incorporate in the egg whites. 

The crab cake has undergone a dramatic evolution from the simplistic designs of the Native American dish described by James Michener.  Crab cakes have taken on a global recognition and have been incorporated into every style of cuisine around the world.  The western style crab cake has been the dominant style used by most cultures outside of the Mid – Atlantic region. Any flavor profile can be added to make this dish successful.  Many of the characteristics that we obsess over here in the Maryland do not mean much in other parts of the world.     The inclusion of vegetables and even spicy chilies which mask the flavor of the crab are in common usage throughout the world.  Many other ingredients are added to change the texture and taste of the dish, from soy sauce and lemon grass to pineapple and citrus fruits.

Many of these changes have found their way full circle and are now available in the Maryland region, as well as the traditional versions, but this dish has seen drastic changes from its humble origin, and the versatility of the crab meat cake will continue to amaze and delight diners.  All kinds of species of crab have been used in this dish now and even lobster and shrimp cakes are now made making the European influence more pronounced.  It is hard to imagine the simple design of a crab cake manipulated to the same culinary peaks as pork or beef, but the versatility and the universality of this dish sparks new creations every day.  If the discovery of a new dish brings more joy to the whole of humanity then the discovery of a new star, then the Callinectes Sapidus has brought more joy to the world then the infinite reaches of the cosmos.

The Chesapeake Bay region has provided more crabs for human consumption than any other body of water in the world, including the great oceans.   Now, the harvest is threatened and every effort should be made to preserve it.  Tightened restrictions have helped to preserve the population of the Chesapeake blue crab, but these efforts have daunted crab enthusiasts by creating prices which make the consumption of steamed crab prohibitive to most people.

Political and legal failings have complicated the restoration and preservation efforts of the Chesapeake Bay Foundation, which in recent years has come under scrutiny for forging documentation regarding the health of the Bay in order to secure funding.

Human interests have always been at odds with the heath of the Bay as development in the region has exceeded the capacity of the Bay and the indulgence in excessive harvesting of both crabs and oysters as well as fish and wildlife have diminished the regions biodiversity to unprecedented levels.  The long term effects of these actions can only be speculated about at this point, but the bounty of the Bay is now only a fraction of what it once was.

The bounty of the bay can now be seen as a finite resource, where once it was viewed as an infinite garden, but recent years have seen progress and development in the ecological health of the region and hopefully one day it will return to the opulent luxury it once was and make Maryland once again “the land of pleasant living.”

 

The Evolution:

Dispute this dishes popularity, crab cakes were sort of a local dish associated with the poor, which is why there is little mention of it most cookbooks until much later in history.  Much like the terrapin, crabs were looked down upon and even though they were eaten regularly, it wasn’t until modern preservation methods developed, that crabs became available outside of the regions in which they were caught.

Crab Cakes for Breakfast[3]

1894

 

Take the crab after it is picked and season it high with red pepper and salt.  Then add butter, and make them in round cakes, using a little flour to hold them together.  Then dip them in egg and cracker beaten fine.  Fry in hot butter or lard. 

This is a very basic eastern shore style crab cake.  It would only work with fresh crab meat which would have enough moisture to hold together while you are dredging them in the egg and breadcrumb mixtures.

Crab Cakes[4]

1931

 

                Buy fresh lump crabmeat if you can find it, and give yourself time to refrigerate the cakes after you shape them so that they will hold together better when you cook them.

                Gently pick over for bits of shell of cartilage:

1 Lb. Fresh Jumbo Lump Crabmeat

                In a skillet over medium heat, warm:

2 Tbsp. Butter or Olive Oil

                When the butter foam has subsided, add:

1 Tbsp. Finely Diced Red Bell Pepper (Optional)

½ Cup Diced scallions

1 Tsp. Minced Garlic

                Cook, stirring, until the mixture is tender but not browned, about 10 minutes.  Set aside.  In a large bowl, mix the crabmeat with:

1 Egg, Lightly Beaten

¼ Cup Mayonnaise

1 Tbsp. Dijon Mustard

Salt & Ground Black Pepper

¼ Tsp. Ground Red Pepper (Optional)

¼ Cup Minced Fresh Parsley, Cilantro or Dill

2 Tbsp. Fresh Breadcrumbs, Toasted

                Add the sautéed vegetables and blend well.  Place on a plate. 

This is an unusually complicated recipe which is more of a take on the deviled crab, which saw an increase in popularity during this time.  The mixture was mixed together and packed into the cleaned back shell of the crab and baked off.

Crab Cakes Baltimore[5]

1932

 

                Take one pound of crabmeat for each four crab cakes.  Put crabmeat into mixing bowl; add one and one half teaspoons salt, one teaspoon white pepper, one teaspoon English dry mustard and two tbsp. Worcestershire sauce, one yolk of egg and one soup spoon cream sauce or mayonnaise, one Tablespoon chopped parsley.  Mix Well, making four crab cakes, press hard together, dip into flour, then into beaten eggs, then into bread crumbs, and fry them in hot grease pan. 

In this recipe we see the allusion to the northern style crab cake in which a thick cream paste is used instead of mayonnaise as a binding agent in an otherwise western style crab cake.  The bread crumbs at this point are still added to the outside of the cake as opposed to mixed into the mixture, which would develop later as chefs sought to find better ways of prepping the product for restaurant service.

Balmer’s Best Crab Cakes[6]

1941

 

2 Egg Whites                                                                                     

1 Tsp. Prepared Mustard

2 Slices Dry white Bread, Crust Removed & Crumbed    

½ – ¾ Tsp. Old Bay Seasoning

1 Tbsp. Mayonnaise                                                                      

1 Lb. Lump Crabmeat, Picked Clean

Vegetable Oil for Frying

 

  1. 1.       In a bowl, beat egg whites until stiff.  Add bread, mayonnaise, mustard and old bay seasoning and toss through but gently.
  2. 2.       Spoon mixture over crab and gently mix together.
  3. 3.       Form mixture into 6 large or 8 medium crab balls and chill approximately one hour.
  4. 4.       Heat oil until hot but not smoking and deep fry crab balls until golden, about 5 – 10 minutes.  Drain on paper towels.  Serve at once. 

 

This is the first mention of using Old Bay in the dish.  Crab cakes would soon become synonymous with this seasoning blend as industrial giants like Mrs. Paul’s set up production in the region and produced crab cakes and other seafood specialties for the new frozen food markets.

Crab Cakes[7] 

1946

 

                One Lb. Flake Crab meat, 2 hard boiled eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls melted butter.  Chop whites of eggs, add 1 cup of bread crumbs, yolks of eggs with butter then add 3 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, cayenne, mustard, and salt to taste.   Mix all together, form into cakes, fry a golden brown in butter and lard mixed.

                                                                                                                Mrs. M.J. Radcliffe

Here we have the use of hard boiled eggs being added to the dish to enrich it and compliment it with different textures.  This idea probably came to the cook as they noticed the similarities between deviled crab and deviled eggs.

Crab Cakes #1[8]

1948

 

1 Cup Rich Milk                                                                                

3 Tablespoons Butter

3 Tablespoons Flour                                                                      

1 Egg

½ Teaspoon Salt                                                                              

Dash Tabasco

¼ Teaspoon Dry Mustard                                                            

1 Tablespoon Worcestershire

1 Tablespoon Fresh Chopped Parsley                                    

Generous Grating Nutmeg

1 Pound Crab Meat

 

                Make white sauce of butter, flour, milk, and salt.  Just before remaining from fire, stir in whole eggs, cook 1 minute, then add seasonings.  Allow to cool.

                Pick over 1 pound crab meat to remove shells.  Add crab to sauce, mix thoroughly but gently.  When cold, form into large cakes, dip in bread crumbs and fry in butter.

                These cakes are quite soft, and if preferred, the mixture can be baked in ramekins or a casserole.

–          Betty Jean Wheeler

This is a perfect example of the Northern style crab cake with the thick cream paste being used in place of mayonnaise.  This idea may be a sort of throwback to a time before the common usage of mayonnaise, but it is impossible to determine this since there are so few records of the recipe beyond the nineteenth century.

Deviled Crab Cakes[9]

1950

 

¼ Lb. Butter                                                                                       

2 Tbsp. Flour

1 Cup Milk                                                                                         

1 Tbsp. Worcestershire Sauce

1 Tsp. Poultry Seasoning                                                             

Dash Black Pepper

¼ Tsp. Salt                                                                                          

1 Lb. Crab Meat

1 Egg                                                                                                     

Cracker Crumbs

 

                Melt butter, stir in flour, and add 1 cup milk slowly over low heat.  Break egg over crab meat.  Fold in sauce.  Put in refrigerator to set.  Form crab mixture into cakes using 1 tablespoon for each cake, dip in cracker crumbs and fry in deep fat. 

Here we see the direct link between the modern western crab cake and the popular dish of deviled crab.  This recipe would be identical for either dish.  The introduction of ice made it possible to supply and transport fresh crabmeat and soft shell crabs all over the eastern seaboard.  Deviled crab was so popular a dish that 100 shells were added with every gallon of picked crab meat.  The packers employed small black children called “knockers”, to clean and dry the shells.  Ceramic and plastic shells are now more commonly used in the dish today.

This recipe originated out of the Eastern or land lovers crab cake concept and now has taken on many forms.  In its original conception, it was served inside the back shell of the crab, but in the south in places such as North and South Carolina and the Creole cooking styles of New Orleans the mixture is made in croquettes and deep fried.

Deviled “Doublers”

Christopher Gobbett

2009

 

For the Soft Shells:

6 Soft Shell Crabs, Cleaned                                                        

Flour for Dredging

Egg Wash For Dredging                                                                

Seasoned Bread Crumbs

Salt And Pepper, to Taste                                                           

Oil, For Frying

 

For the Deviled Crab:

1 Lb. Jumbo Lump Crab Meat, Picked Clean

1 Teaspoon Mustard                                                                     

½ Cup Mayonnaise

1 ½ Tb. Old Bay Seasoning                                                          

½ Cup Panko Bread Crumbs

2 Eggs                                                                                                   

1 Tsp. Worcestershire Sauce

½ Tsp. Hot Sauce                                                                             

¼ Tsp. Cayenne Pepper

¼ Cup Diced Onion; Caramelized                                            

¼ Cup Diced Green Bell Pepper, Sautéed

 

For Topping:

½  Cup Panko Bread Crumbs                                                      

2 Oz. Olive Oil

                                                                               

1:            Dredge the soft shells first in flour, then egg wash and then seasoned bread crumbs. 

2:            Pick the crabmeat for shells.  Cook Onions and peppers, and combine with mayonnaise, peppers and seasonings.  Gently toss in crab meat and Panko bread crumbs. 

3:            Gently fry the soft shells until the breading is brown and set, do not cook long, crabs should still be uncooked inside. 

4:            Flip soft shells on their back and place crab mixture in mounds on top.  Toss bread crumbs and oil together and top the crab mixture with it.

5:            Place in 400 degree oven and finish baking for 10 minutes until soft shell is cooked and crab mixture is set.  Crumb topping should be golden brown.                           

The idea behind this recipe is that the soft shell crab is topped with the crabmeat, albeit deviled, riding on top.  I wanted to replicate the natural patterns of the crab’s life cycle in a dish.  The soft shell crab is upside down and the deviled “Jimmy” meat is placed on top.  This is the way that the crabs are when they are mating and called “doublers”.

Crab – Burger[10]

1964

 

1 Lb. Can Fresh Backfin Crab Meat                                          

1 Cup Shredded Cheese Medium Sharp

¾ Cup Chopped Celery                                                                

1 Cup Miracle whip

2 Tbsp. finely Grated Onion                                                       

1 – 2 Tsp. Worcestershire Sauce

2 Tbsp. Finely Chopped Green Pepper                                 

1 Tsp. Tabasco

¾ Tsp. Salt                                                                                         

Hamburger Rolls

 

                Remove all particles of shell from the crabmeat, then combine all the remaining ingredients and mix well.  Cut hamburger rolls in half, butter lightly and toast with the butter side up.  (This forms a crisp surface so that mixture will not be absorbed by the bun.)  Spread mixture generously on the bun; sprinkle with a little shredded cheese.  Place under 400 degree broiler for 3 -5 minutes or until light brown and bubbly.  Serve hot, immediately.

This is a unique version of a crab cake.  Cheese is not often associated with crab, although dairy products such as milk and cream are.  This dish may be a sort of homage to the popularity of hamburgers during this time in history.

Maryland Crab Cakes[11]

1964

 

1 Lb. Can Crabmeat                                                                                        

2 Tbsp. Mayonnaise

2 Eggs                                                                                                                   

1 Tbsp. Kraft’s Horseradish Mustard

¼ Tsp. Salt                                                                                                          

1/8 Tsp. Pepper

5 Drops Tabasco                                                                                              

1 Tbsp. Chopped Parsley

Cracker Crumbs                                                                                                               

Fat for Frying

 

                Combine all ingredients except crumbs and fat and mix together lightly.  Form into desired size cakes.  Do not pack firmly.  Prepare cracker crumbs by rolling out saltine crackers into fine crumbs, then pat or roll lightly on the crab cake.  Fry in 1 ½ inches of hot fat in iron frying pan on both sides until golden brown.  Remove and drain on absorbent paper serve immediately. 

The idea of adding horseradish to the dish probably came from the use of cocktail sauce as a usual accompaniment to the dish.  Cracker crumbs are also used as opposed to traditional bread or bread crumbs; this is a fairly common innovation that has taken over for several decades before the importation of Japanese Panko breadcrumbs.

Maryland Crab Cakes[12]

1972

 

2 Lbs. Backfin Crabmeat                                                                               

2 Egg Yolks

2 Tsp. Salt                                                                                                            ½ Tsp. Pepper

1 Tsp. Dry Mustard                                                                                         

3 Tsp. Worcestershire Sauce

3 Tbsp. Mayonnaise                                                                                      

2 Tbsp.  Chopped Parsley

1 Tbsp. lemon Juice                                                                                       

2 Tbsp. Melted Butter

2 cups Soft Bread Crumbs                                                                           

2 Egg Whites, Beaten Stiff

 

                Combine all ingredients except egg white and then fold mixture into egg whites.  Shape into 2 ½ – 3 inch cakes or balls.  Sauté in melted butter over low heat until browned. 

This recipe uses stiff beaten egg whites and folds them into the cakes to add a degree of lightness to the dish.  I use this method myself for creating a sort of crab bombe style of crab cake which is really good.  See crab cake clouds, above. 

Crab Cakes[13]

1976

 

1 Pound Claw Crab Meat                                                             

1 Tablespoon Parsley

2 Onions                                                                                             

1 Teaspoon Celery Seed

6 Slices Stale White Bread                                                          

1 Teaspoon Mustard Seed

2 Eggs                                                                                                   

Salt and Pepper to Taste

 

                Fry onions in shortening.  Soak bread in water; then squeeze out as much water as possible.  In a bowl, put bread onions, and mix.  Add eggs and mix again.  Add parsley, celery seed, mustard seed, and salt and pepper.  Pick over crab meat for any shells.  Add mixture.  Form into cakes in small balls.  Roll in cracker meal; fry in a little shortening.

                                                               

–              Mrs. Mary McCormick

 

From this, we can see the growing expense of crabmeat in the market.  The decline in the harvest increased by the national and even global demand for the dish drove up the price of the Chesapeake blue crab and here we can see the crabmeat being stretched by the addition of 6 slices of bread.

 

Crab Cake[14]

1981

 

12 Saltine Crackers

2 Eggs, Separated

1 Tablespoon Onion, Chopped

1 Pound Crabmeat

1 Tablespoon Mayonnaise

½ Teaspoon Salt

¼ Teaspoon Pepper

1 Teaspoon Seafood Seasoning

1 Teaspoon Baking Powder

½ Teaspoon Mustard

 

                Place crabmeat in a bowl.  Crumble crackers fine.  Beat egg yolks, add egg yolks, crackers and sprinkle other ingredients on top.  Gently fold all together being careful not to break up the crab pieces.  Beat egg whites to a soft peak.  Gently fold into crab mixture.  Shape into 3 ½ inch rounded cakes.  Heat 2 tablespoons shortening or bacon fat and 1 Tablespoon butter in an electric fryer at 380 degree fry to light brown of both sides turning once.  Serves 4 – 6 do not overcook. 

                To serve as hor d’oeurves – see under cocktail foods.

This is an unusual recipe in that it includes baking powder.  I imagine that it is an effort on the part of the cook to lighten the density of the crab cake; this has been a problem with crab cakes since the practice of adding starch into the crab mixture became common.  In the previous recipe from 1972 we saw the addition of beaten egg whites used to achieve the same purpose.

Crab Cakes[15]

1982

 

1 egg                                                                                                    

1/8 tsp. Worcestershire Sauce  

¼ Cup Mayonnaise                                                                        

1/8 Tsp. Allspice or Curry Powder

¼ tsp. Salt                                                                                          

2 Tbsp. Dehydrated Parsley

1 Tbsp. Lemon Juice                                                                      

Dash Tabasco Sauce

1 Tsp. Wet Mustard                                                                       

1 Tbsp. Capers W/juice

1/8 Tsp. Horseradish

 

                Mix together and fold into 1 lb. of Crabmeat.  Mold into cakes and dip into coating mix, lightly fry in butter or oil.  These may be frozen.  Thaw on paper towels, and then dip in coating mix and fry. 

 

 

The evolution of the dish seems to stem from trying to incorporate condiments into this dish.  Here we see the addition of not only horseradish, but also capers.  Mixing pickles and mayonnaise is how you make tartar sauce which is another popular condiment for crab cakes.  I usually use sweet pickle relish and heavy duty mayonnaise to make my tartar sauce.

Deviled Crab Imperial Cakes[16]

1984

 

1 Pound Virginia Crab Meat                                                       

1 Teaspoon Dry Mustard

1 Egg, Beaten                                                                                    

Tabasco Sauce, to Taste

¼ Cup Mayonnaise                                                                        

1 Cup Chopped Onion

4 to 5 Hard – Boiled Eggs, Chopped                                        

1 Tablespoon Finely Chopped Celery

1 Tablespoon Chopped Pimento                                             

1 Tablespoon Dry Parsley Flakes

1 Teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce                                          

2 Garlic Cloves, Finely Minced

1 Teaspoon Old Bay Seasoning                                                 

Peanut Oil for Frying

Biscuit or Roll Crumbs for Coating

 

                Mix well all ingredients through garlic cloves.  Shape into about 10 crab cakes.  Roll cakes in crumbs.  Roll cakes in crumbs making sure crumbs are worked into entire surface of cakes.  (If cakes are not sufficiently shaped and coated, it will break up in the oil and spatter.)  Deep fry until golden brown on both sides. 

                Note:  Cakes may be frozen after they are rolled in crumbs and later thawed and cooked.

This is a rather eclectic combination of ingredients and I am not sure where the inference of crab imperial comes from.  Crab Imperial is a dish which is sort of a thicker and richer version of cream of crab soup served over toast points.  Here we have the unusual combination of garlic added to the dish.  Personally, if you want to try this dish, I would suggest sautéing the garlic in the peanut oil and frying the cakes in that as opposed to adding it to the crab cake mixture.  Garlic can easily overpower other ingredients, especially if it is still somewhat raw.

Hampton Crab Cakes[17]

1984

 

1 ½ Cups Fine Bread Crumbs                                                      

1 Teaspoon Dry Mustard

½ Teaspoon Oregano                                                                    

1 Teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce

½ Teaspoon Basil                                                                            

2 Eggs

½ Teaspoon Salt                                                                              

¼ Cup Salad Dressing

1 Pound Crab Meat                                                                        

4 Tablespoons Butter or Margarine

 

                Mix crumbs, oregano, and basil.  Combine in bowl 1 cup of crumb mixture, salt, mustard, Worcestershire sauce, eggs, and salad dressing.  Add crab meat to crumb mixture, gently stir together.  Shape into 8 cakes.  Roll in remaining crumb mixture.  Fry in butter until brown on both sides, about 6 minutes a side.

                Note:  Cakes may be frozen before frying.  They keep well frozen and meat does not get stringy.

 

                Here is another unusual recipe which seems to incorporate an Italian spice palette into the classic mixture.  It uses I am supposing an Italian Vinaigrette style of dressing, although a heavier cream style such as thousand island or ranch would work, even though I cannot recommend them with this particular recipe.  It is an interesting experiment in the vein of the industrial food era when pre-packaged products were added to non-traditional ingredients.

Martha Drummond Curry’s Reedville Crab Cakes[18]

1984

 

 1 Pound Crab Meat                                                                       

½ Cup Mayonnaise

¼ Teaspoon Vinegar                                                                      

¼ Cup Pancake Mix

Dash Liquid Smoke                                                                        

½ Teaspoon Sugar

1 Tablespoon Prepared Mustard                                             

1 Teaspoon Parsley Flakes

1/8 Teaspoon Hot Sauce                                                              

¼ Cup Bacon Fat

 

                Mix together crab meat, vinegar, liquid smoke, mustard, mayonnaise, pancake mix, sugar, parsley flakes, and hot sauce.  Pat mixture into cakes and fry in bacon fat, turning once, until brown on both sides.  Drain and serve.

This is another example of the industrial food movement and the experiment of using unusual ingredients in traditional dishes.  Be careful using the liquid smoke, it is very powerful, I would even go so far as to suggest that you just smoke the crab meat or use smoked sea salt instead of liquid smoke in this dish.  Liquid smoke is a great product, but it definitely benefits from being added to liquids such as BBQ and braising liquids which can dilute the concentration of the flavor.

The Ultimate Crab Cake[19]

1989

 

1 Pound Lump Crabmeat                                                             

1 Egg, Beaten

Crab Seasoning to Taste

 

                Mix the ingredients together, seasoning to taste.  Form the mixture into two eight ounce crab cakes.

                Place crab cakes on a preheated, oiled frying pan.  Cook over medium heat on both sides until browned, approximately 5 to 10 minutes.  Serve hot.

                                                                                                                Yield: 2 enormous servings

This is as basic as it gets.  This recipe is more of a crab bombe than a crab cake; there is no starch in this dish, therefore no “cake”.

Black “n” Blue Cakes[20]

1992

 

2 Lbs. Lump Crabmeat, Picked Over for Shells                                   

1 Tsp. Tabasco Sauce

2 Cups Mayonnaise                                                                                       

2 Tbsp. Chopped Fresh Parsley

½ Cup Sour Cream                                                                                          

1 cup Fine Dried Bread Crumbs

½ Cup Fresh lemon Juice                                                                              Blackening Seasoning

½ Cup Dijon Mustard                                                                                     Clarified Butter for Sautéing

2 Tbsp. Old Bay Seasoning                                                                           Reddened Butter Sauce

1 Tsp. Worcestershire Sauce

 

                Place the crabmeat in a mixing bowl and set aside.

                In a small mixing bowl, combine the egg, butter and lemon juice, Worcestershire sauce and parsley.  Mix until frothy.  Sprinkle crabmeat with bread crumbs and pour the egg mixture over the top.  Gently toss or fold the ingredients together, taking not to break up the lumps of crabmeat.

                Form the mixture into mounded rounds about 3 minutes in diameter and 1 inch thick.  Do not pack the batter too firmly.  The cakes should be a loose as possible, yet still hold their shape. 

                Prepare the blackening seasoning and the reddened butter sauce.  Keep the sauce warm over low heat. 

                Heat in a large cast iron skillet over high heat until smoking hot (the hotter the better).  Dip each cake in clarified butter and roll in the blackening seasoning.  Cook for 2 – 3 minutes on each side. 

                Serve at once with the sauce.

                Note:  Whenever using the blackening method, be sure you are working in a well ventilated area.  This process produces a lot of smoke, so put on the exhaust fan and open the windows or the smoke alarms will be wailing.

 

Reddened Butter Sauce

 

1 Tbsp. Olive Oil                                                                              

4 Tbsp. Butter, Cut into Small Pieces

1 Tbsp. minced Onion                                                                   

1 Tsp. Blackening Seasoning

1 Tsp. Minced Garlic                                                                      

1 Tsp. Chopped Fresh Parsley

Juice of 1 Lemon                                                                             

Salt and Black Pepper to Taste

½ Cup Dry White wine                                                                 

1 Tbsp. Tomato Paste

2 Cups Heavy Cream

 

                In a small saucepan over medium heat, warm the olive oil.  Add the onion and garlic in a sauté pan for 2 minutes; add the lemon juice and wine.  Bring to a boil and reduce slightly.

                 Whisk in the tomato paste and cream.  Continue cooking until reduced by half.  Add the blackening spice, reduce the heat to low, and slowly whisk in the butter, piece by piece. Remove from the heat.  Add the parsley, salt and pepper. 

 

                Here we have more of a Cajun influence on the dish.  Blue crabs are common in the gulf region and crab cakes are just as familiar to that part of the country as it is to ours.  With the crab cake moving out of the realm of local specialty and into its place as part of our national cuisine, we begin to see a homogenization of the dish where different regional styles surface in various regions of the country.

No Fat Crab Cakes[21]

1997

 

¾ Cup Cracker Crumbs                                                                                 

¾ Cup Bread Crumbs

2 Egg Whites                                                                                                     

¼ Tsp. Dried Parsley

1 Tsp. Baking Powder                                                                                    

1 Tsp. Old Bay

4 Tbsp. No – Fat Mayonnaise                                                                    

1 Tsp. No – Salt Worcestershire

1 Tbsp. Yellow Mustard                                                                                               

2 Tbsp. Water

½ Lb. Special Crab Meat

 

                Clean the crab meat and set aside in refrigerator.  Mix dry ingredients.  Mix wet ingredients.  Blend both mixtures together, and then gently add crabmeat.  For best results, refrigerate for approximately one hour before preparing.  Pan Fry in a lightly oiled pan on medium heat for 6 minutes on each side.  Makes about 6 crab cakes.

This is a “health-food” version of the dish.  I really can’t imagine why anyone would want to make this, but here it is.  Fat, salt, sugar and acid are the main flavoring agents used in all food to enhance the flavor and allow our palette to perceive its taste.  Removing these elements does not make any sense.  If you are on a restricted diet, just make smaller cakes or even make the Maryland crab soup.  There is no reason to make bad food and that is what this recipe is.  I have never seen no-salt Worcestershire sauce in my life and I hope I never do.

Crab Cakes with Pink Grapefruit Sauce[22]

1998

 

Sauce:

1 ½ Cups Strained Pink Grapefruit Juice

¾ Cups Dry White Wine

6 Large Shallots, Minced

15 Whole Peppercorns

1 Cup Plus 2 Tablespoons Chilled Unsalted Butter, Cut Into Pieces

 

Crab Cakes:

¾ Pound Crabmeat, Picked Through

¼ Cup Minced Celery

¼ Cup Minced Red Onion

3 Tablespoons Mayonnaise

1 Egg, Slightly Beaten

2 Tablespoons Diced, Canned Mild Chilies

1 Teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce

2 ¼ Cups Fresh Bread Crumbs, Divided

2 Tablespoons Unsalted Butter

 

                To prepare sauce, combine all ingredients except chilled butter in a large, heavy saucepan.  Boil until liquid is reduced to 3 tablespoons, about 20 minutes.  Strain; return  to saucepan and set aside.

                To prepare crab cakes, combine crabmeat, celery, onion, mayonnaise, egg, chilies, Worcestershire and ¼ cup of the bread crumbs in a bowl.  Divide mixture into 8 mounds.  Flatten into ¾ inch patties.  Coat crab cakes in remaining 2 cups crumbs, covering completely.  Preheat oven to 180 degrees.  Melt butter in a large, heavy skillet over medium high heat.  Add crab cakes in batches and cook until golden brown, about 4 minutes per side.  Transfer to a baking sheet; keep warm in oven.  Bring sauce to a simmer.  Reduce heat to low.  Gradually add chilled butter, whisking until melted.  Transfer crab cakes to a plates.  Spoon sauce around crab cakes and serve.

                Note: Sauce can be prepared a day ahead.  Cover and refrigerate.  Crab cakes can be prepared 2 hours ahead.  Cover and refrigerate. 

                Yield: 8 Servings.

I want to say this is sort of a Thai style influence, but I can’t commit to that.  It is definitely an unusual combination.  The crab cake itself flies in the face of traditional wisdom by including chilies and onions since they will take away from the flavor of the crab.  The sauce strikes me the most as being odd.  I don’t think I would ever pair crab with grapefruit juice, but who knows, I think this may be the result of a chef suffering from “florescent light syndrome.”  This is a disease which strikes chef who spends so much time in the kitchen that they lose touch with the fact that regular people are going to eat this.

Galette de Crabe “Le Bec – Fin”[23]

1999

 

For the Galettes:

14 Oz. Large Shrimp, Peeled and Deveined

1 Bunch Scallions, Trimmed and Sliced Into Thin Rings

4 Tablespoons Butter (divided)

2 Whole Eggs, cold

2 Cups Heavy Cream, Icy Cold

4 Tablespoons Dijon Mustard

1 Tablespoon Worcestershire Sauce

1 Tablespoon Tabasco Sauce

1 Pound Jumbo Crabmeat, Picked Through Removing Any Shell or Cartilage

Olive Oil as Needed

 

For The Sauce:

1 Egg Yolk

1 Tablespoon Sherry Vinegar

2 Tablespoons Dijon Mustard

½ Cup Chicken Stock

1 ½ Cups Olive Oil

2 Tablespoons Whole Grain Mustard

Salt and Pepper (to Taste)

For the Endive:

1 Tablespoon butter

2 Teaspoons Lemon Juice, Fresh

3 Heads Belgian endive, Cored and Cut into 1 – inch Lengths

1 Teaspoon Sugar

Salt and Ground White Pepper (to Taste)

1 Lb. Haricot Vert (Slender young green beans) Trimmed and Blanched (optional)

 

Additional Equipment:

4 – 5 (3 inch) Ring Molds

 

  1. 1.       Galettes: Chill shrimp, bowl and steel “s” blade of a food processor, in the freezer for 30 minutes.
  2. 2.       In a small skillet, sauté the scallions in 1 tablespoon of butter, until just wilted.  Set aside to cool.
  3. 3.       Place shrimp in food processor bowl fitter with an “s” blade, and puree on high speed for 1 minute or until well chopped.  Using a rubber spatula, scrape down the sides of the bowl; add eggs and process until mixture appears smooth and shiny (about 2 minutes.) with machine running, slowly pour in heavy cream.  Scrape bowl and process again until cream is incorporated.  Transfer shrimp mixture to a bowl; stir in mustard, Worcestershire, and Tabasco.  Gently fold in cooked scallions and crab meat. 
  4. 4.       Place 4 or 5 (3 inch) oiled ring molds into lightly oiled non – stick pan; fill each ring with the mixture – smoothing off the tops with a spoon.  Over medium heat, cook crab cakes until golden brown (about 2 minutes on each side.) Once the cakes are browned, push down rings to cut off the excess crab mixture; remove rings from around crab cakes.  Remove cakes from pan.  Repeat procedure until all crab meat is used. 
  5. 5.       Sauce:  In a blender or food processor, combine egg yolk, vinegar, Dijon, and chicken stock.  Blend until smooth (about 30 seconds).  While machine is running, drizzle in olive oil until the sauce is emulsified (creamy in appearance).  Add mustard and season with salt and pepper to taste.
  6. 6.       Endive:  In a small sauté pan, heat butter and lemon juice.  Add endive and sugar; toss together.  Cook over medium heat until endive is wilted (but not soft) and pan juices are absorbed.  Season with salt and pepper to taste, and set aside.
  7. 7.       Putting it together:  Preheat oven to 400 degrees.  Place the crab cakes on a buttered nonstick baking pan and bake for 5 minutes or until cakes are springy to the touch.  In a small pot, slowly to heat the sauce over low heat – do not let it boil.  Place a small amount of endive onto each plate, top with 1 or 2 crab cakes.  Ladle sauce over crab cakes and serve immediately. 

This is a classic example of a European style crab cake which uses seafood as a binder.  This is actually more of a seafood cake as opposed to a crab cake.  Be careful not to overcook this or it will become spongy and tough.  I recommend using corn starch instead of eggs for the cake itself.  This will give you a little more wiggle room as far as holding this dish for a few minutes.

Crab Cakes[24]

2000

 

2 cups Imperial Sauce (Commercial)                                      

6 Tablespoons Milk

½ Cup Fresh Bread Crumbs                                                         

½ Teaspoon Baking Powder

½ Teaspoon Old Bay Seasoning                                                

16 Oz. Lump Crabmeat

3 Tablespoons Clarified Butter

               

Mix all ingredients except butter gently in a bowl.  Form into 12 equal cakes.  Melt butter in a large sauté pan.  Sauté crab cakes until brown on both sides.  Serve on a bed of lettuce with cocktail or tartar sauce.  Serves 6. 

This is a northern crab cake which uses a bottled imperial sauce as a binding agent.  It cuts this with baking powder and is a good example of the modern style of cooking where everything is premade and you are just assembling ingredients.

Mushroom Crab Cakes[25]

2001

 

1 Lb. Backfin, Backfin – Lump, or Lump Crabmeat            

1 ½ Tbsp. White Wine

2 Oz. Shiitake Mushrooms, Skins Removed                        

1 ½ Tbsp. Minced Garlic

2 Oz. Portobello Mushrooms, Gills Removed                    

1 Tbsp. Minced Fresh Basil

2 Oz. Domestic Mushrooms, Gills Removed                       

1 Egg Beaten

¼ cup Minced Onion                                                                     

3/8 Cup Mayonnaise

1 Tbsp. Olive Oil                                                                              

1 Tbsp. Old Bay Seasoning

½ – 1 Cup Unseasoned Bread Crumbs                                    

2 Tbsp. Butter

 

                Thoroughly clean crabmeat of any shells.  Set aside.  Finely chop all mushrooms.  Saute mushrooms and onion in olive oil until onions are translucent.  Add wine, garlic, and basil.  Cook until most of the liquid evaporates.  Allow mixture to cool. 

                When room temperature, add crabmeat, egg, mayonnaise, Old Bay, and ½ cup bread crumbs.  Use hands to mix together thoroughly.  (Mixture should be firm, not dry.) Continue to add breadcrumbs until mixture reaches desired consistency.  Fashion mixture into 8 cakes.

                Melt butter in shallow fry pan or on griddle.  Gently fry cakes at a moderate temperature until cakes are golden.  Serves 2 as an entrée or 8 as an appetizer. 

Remove the crab from this dish and you have a pretty good mushroom burger.

Deviled Crab Cake Sandwiches[26]

2004

 

2 (8 Oz.) Cans Crabmeat                                                               

2 Eggs

10 Dashes Tabasco Sauce                                                            

1 Tablespoon Old Bay Seasoning

½ cup Mayonnaise                                                                         

¼ Cup Chopped Celery

¼ Cup Chopped Onion                                                                 

2 Tablespoons Worcestershire Sauce

1 ½ Tablespoons Lemon Juice                                                   

1 ½ Tablespoon Parsley

1 Tablespoon Cilantro                                                                  

2 Large Buns

 

                In a large bowl, combine all ingredients except buns.  Form mixture into 2 balls and flatten into patties.  Grill until hot all the way through.  Place on buns.  Top with tartar sauce, salsa, remolade or other condiment of your choice.  Serves 2. 

The new thing about this dish is the inclusion of cilantro.  I often make a crab salad which is heavily influenced by the Latino style and could easily be made into a new style of crab cake.  Replace the lemon juice with lime and use the Jalapeno Tabasco sauce, (Green bottle).

Miss Pauline’s Crab Cakes[27]

2009

 

Steam 2 Dozen Jimmy Blue Crabs (with Old Bay Seasoning)

Pick Clean and save Yellow Fat

 

¼ Cup Mayonnaise

1 Tsp. Dry Mustard

1 Tsp. Worcestershire Sauce

¼ Tsp. Black Pepper

1 Pinch Salt or a Shake of Old Bay

1 slice Toasted Bread (Crumbled)

1 Large Egg, Beaten

Measure: 1 Lb. Crab Meat (Backfin Only)

 

                Mix all ingredients except crab in a bowl.  Add crab fat and eggs.  Mix well.  Add crabmeat.  Slowly and gently mix ingredients into crab without breaking crab apart.  Fry in butter.

Makes 6 – 8 patties

This recipe opened my eyes and I will never make crab cakes at home again using the picked crab meat from the store.  I always cook my own crabs now and pick them myself.  The “butter,” or yellow fat mentioned above is an essential ingredient in making an excellent crab cake.  Just like the original crab cakes which used whole crabs, there is no better way to get the flavor into the cake than by doing this.  Cook the crabs with plenty of seasoning in the water and it will permeate the crab meat and require less additional seasoning in the mix.  I also use some apple cider vinegar in the liquid o cook the crabs in to really help sharpen the flavor of the crab.

There is an endless variety of ingredients which can be used to make crab cakes, but many people get bogged down with the idea that they need to make a traditional dish.  Do not be afraid to experiment with your food; just add ingredients that will match your palette and your dish might be the next step in the evolution of Maryland cuisine.


[1] Chesapeake By James A. Michner copyright 1978 by Random House

[2] Chesapeake By James A. Michner copyright 1978 by Random House

[3] Fifty years in a Maryland Kitchen: 430 authentic regional recipes, Ms. B.C. Howard, 1873 J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

[4] The Joy of Cooking by Irma S. Rombauer, Marion Rombauer Becker and Ethan Becker: Scribner 1931

[5] Eat, Drink & be Merry in Maryland by Frederick Philip Stieff: The John Hopkins University Press 1932

[6] The Original Baltimore Neighborhood Cookbook by Irena Smith & Ann Hazen: Camino Books, Inc. 1991

[7] Glen Rock Cookbook: Published by The Ladies of “The Friendly Helpers” Bible Class of Trinity Reformed Sunday school Glen Rock, Penna 1946

[8] A Cook’s Tour of the Eastern Shore by The Easton Maryland Memorial Hospital Junior Auxiliary: Tidewater Publishers 1948

[9] Buck’s The Artists’ County Cooks: A Gourmet’s Guide to estimable Comestibles with Pictures by The Women’s auxiliary of trinity Chapel: college Offset Press 1950

[10] My Favorite Maryland Recipes by Mrs. J. Millard Tawes: Random House Publishing 1964

[11] My Favorite Maryland Recipes by Mrs. J. Millard Tawes: Random House Publishing 1964

[12]Olney Inn Cookbook by Bea Sandler: 1972

[13] The First State, First Lady’s Recipe Book by The Delaware Association of Lawyers’ Wives: Charles Printing company, Inc. 1975

[14] Seafood Recipes from Yorktown, Virginia by Marion Hornsby Bowditch 1981

[15] Receipts From Old Worcester by The Worcester County Historical Society: 1982

[16] The Great Taste of Virginia Seafood: a Cookbook and Guide to Virginia Waters:  Written and Edited by Mary Reid Barrow with Robyn Browder; Schiffer Publishing 1984

[17] The Great Taste of Virginia Seafood: a Cookbook and Guide to Virginia Waters:  Written and Edited by Mary Reid Barrow with Robyn Browder; Schiffer Publishing 1984

[18] The Great Taste of Virginia Seafood: a Cookbook and Guide to Virginia Waters:  Written and Edited by Mary Reid Barrow with Robyn Browder; Schiffer Publishing 1984

[19] From a Lighthouse Window: The Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum; Waverly Press, Easton, Maryland 1989

[20] The Chesapeake Bay Crab Cookbook by John Shields: Addison – Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 1992

[21] Chesapeake Bay Gourmet Seafood Recipes: Margie Kauffman; M & I Seafood, Baltimore, Maryland: 1997

[22] The Heart of Pittsburg: A cookbook from historic Pittsburg by The Sacred Heart Elementary school Parent Teachers Guild: Wimmer Cookbooks 1998

[23] Restaurant Secrets of Greater Washington DC & Other Great Places by Restaurant Secrets Collection Series: Entertainment Publications 1998

[24] A Taste of Pennsylvania History:  a guide to historic eateries and their recipes; Debbie Nunley & Karen Jane Elliott, john F. Blair Publisher 2000

[25] Best of the Best from the Mid-Atlantic Cookbook: Gwen McKee & Barbara Moseley, Quail Ridge Press Inc. 2001

[26] A Taste of Virginia History: a Guide to Historic Eateries and Their Recipes by Debbie Nunley & Karen Jane Elliott: John F. Blair Publisher 2004

[27] Skipjack: the Story of America’s Last Sailing Oystermen by Christopher White: St. Martin’s Press 2009

About midatlanticcooking

Chef in the Mid-Atlantic region for over 20 years. Painter, writer and traveler.
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