Chesapeake Oyster Pie

Oyster culture using tiles

Oyster culture using tiles (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Oyster

 

The oyster’s a confusing suitor:

Its masc., and Fem., and even neuter.

At time it wonders, what may come,

Am I husband, wife or chum.

                                – Ogden Nash

                There are over one hundred verities of oysters in the world but only two are found in the United States.  There is the American Oyster on the East coast and the Olympian on the west coast.  Times have changed in the harvest of the oyster in the Mid – Atlantic region.  Many factors such as politics, pollution, over harvesting and the rise of two deadly diseases have all but destroyed the American Oyster on the east coast. 

                Farming beds and the introduction of foreign oyster species have brought back the oyster in the Northeastern United states and have been proposed as a solution in the Chesapeake, but the Maryland constitution would have to be changed in order to introduce oyster farming.  It states in the constitution that the Chesapeake Bay must remain a free estuary open to everyone who wants to use it. 

                Poor management of the Bay’s resources has lead to a fatal decline in oyster population.  In 1988, only 18 drudgeing licenses were issued for the entire Chesapeake region.  As of 1999, only one skipjack remained that still drudged for oysters, and even that was on a part time basis.  In 2003 the Department of Natural Resources signaled the death knell of the oyster by allowing unlimited power drudgeing on the Chesapeake Bay despite objections by scientists, watermen and environmentalists.  They also suspended the seeding program for oyster spat which was the program that kept the oyster populations from dropping down to fatal levels. 

                 Tonging for oysters is an act of reaching down to the oyster bed and scraping the tongs along the oyster beds and then pulling them up hand over hand and emptying them onto the culling table.  This action is extremely difficult to perform on a boat that is rocking back and forth on the water and requires a great deal of practice to master this skill.  Many beds of oysters in the Mid – Atlantic region are designated as tonging bars and dredging is not allowed on them.       

                It is believed that oyster should only be eaten in months with an “R” in them.  This belief may stem from the times before refrigeration when oysters would spoil quickly in warmer months.  Canning and pasteurization methods have made this notion obsolete. 

                In the old time advertising for oyster.  The ads focus on the size and freshness of the oyster.   The Roman satire Juvenal from the second century, describes the wanton ways of women after eating giant oysters and drinking wine.  The oyster is also said to be an aphrodisiac due to the similarities in appearance between the oyster and female genitals.

                The secret of this dish is to be able to bake the crust of the pie crisp while not over cooking the oysters.  There are two methods to achieve this result.  One is to refrigerate or freeze the filling before adding it to the pie and the other is to par bake the crust and then adds the filling.  Brushing the crust with egg wash will insure a golden color on the final product.

                 Culling is the act of separating the oysters from dead shells and debris pulled up from the bottom of the Bay.  Oysters generally grow in clusters and must be broken apart gently so as not to break open the shells and expose the oyster.  The oyster dose not last long after it is taken out of the shell unless it is preserved in some way suck as canning, brining or smoking. 

 

The Evolution:

 

To Make a Pie of Sweetbreads and Oyfters[1]

1742

 

                Boil the sweetbreads until tender, Ftew the oyfters, feafon the with pepper and salt, and thicken with cream, butter, the yelks of eggs, and flour, put the puff pafte at the bottom and around the sides of a deep difh, take the oyfters up with a egg fpoon, lay them in the bottom, and cover them with sweetbreads, fill the difh with gravy, put the pafte on top, and bake it.  This is the moft delicatepie that can be made.  The sweetbreads of veal is the most delicious part, and may be boiled, fried, or dreffed in any way, and is always good.

                                     (Mrs. Mary Randolph’s Virginia Housewife, 1831)

                Sweetbreads are the thymus glands (neck and throat) and the pancreas (called heart, chest or stomach sweetbreads) of young animals.  Choose sweetbreads that are white, this indicates that the sweetbreads came from a young animal, as these organs turn red as the animal gets older.  They should be soaked in several changes of acidulated water and the outer membrane must be removed before eating.  Heart sweetbreads are considered to be the best and cost more than the thymus.  Veal is the king as far as sweetbreads go, but you can enjoy them from cows, lamb and even pork, although the taste is stronger in pork then in other animals.

 

Oyster Pie[2]

1847

 

                Drain the oysters from their liquor and rinse them; sprinkle them well with corn and wheat flour, mixed; season with black pepper and salt; fry them a little with an onion, sliced very thin; strain and boil the liquor till clear, and, if necessary, add salt.  When ready, to put the oysters to bake, make a crust, and line your dish with it; stir the liquor in with the oysters, and put them in your crust; cover the top with butter and some spice; and lastly, sprinkle with powdered biscuit, or bread crumbs, or a crust may be put over the top. 

                This version of the dish offers suggestions for making the pie open faced as well as traditionally.  I would par bake the dough for the pie so the bottom of the pie does not get soggy.  Just brush bottom of pie with egg yolk and water and bake about ten minutes after pricking the bottom crust with a fork.  Then add the oysters and top off and bake.  If the oyster mixture is warm, you will not need to bake it beyond the browning of the top crust, about 15 minutes. 

 

Baltimore Oyster Pie[3]

1873

 

2 Quarts Small Oysters, Drained                                              

1 Cup Bread Crumbs

Grated Nutmeg or Mace                                                             

1 Cup Butter

Cayenne & Black Pepper                                                             

Rich Pastry to Line a Deep Baking Dish

Pastry for Strips across the top

 

                Line the baking dish with pastry; crimp the edge into a standing and fluted rim.  Season the oysters with spices, mix in the crumbs and butter spooned into small dabs.  Pour the mixture into the baking dish.  Arrange the pastry strips across the top.  Bake this in a hot oven (450 degrees F.) thirty – five to forty minutes, or until the crust is delicately browned.  Serves twelve to sixteen. 

This recipe is the final option in making the pie crust.  It uses the lattice method which takes thin strips of pie dough and weaves them across the top of the pie.  I use a ravioli cutter to make the strips, so I get a really cool fluted edge to the strips.  Make sure the mixture is warm.  This recipe will also benefit from par baking the bottom crust as well.

 

Oyster Pie with Eggs[4]

1873

 

1 ½ Quarts Small Cleaned Oysters, in Their Liquor           

6 Saltines or Butter Crackers, Rolled Into Crumbs

1 Cup White Wine                                                                         

6 Tablespoons Butter

Salt and Pepper                                                                                                Grated Nutmeg or Mace

6 Lightly Baked Rich Pastry Individual Pie Shells                               Pastry to Cover These

6 Hard Cooked Eggs, Yolks Only

 

                Strain the oysters.  Heat the liquor with the wine and pour this over the oysters.  Season them with a little salt and pepper, nutmeg or mace, Add the chopped egg yolks and cracker crumbs and mix.  Then pour some into each pastry lined pie dishes.  Add dabs of butter to the top of each.  Cover with pastry and gash it in several places, or cover with pastry strips.  Set the dishes in a hot oven (450 degrees F.) and bake twenty five to thirty minutes.  Six large servings. 

                This recipe will come out a little wet.  Par bake the pie shell and maybe even add a little flour or breadcrumbs into the oyster mixture.  The only thickening agent this dish has is the yolks of the hard cooked eggs.  Powder these as much as possible before putting into the oyster mixture.  Leave the whites chopped small, but they will not add anything to the thickening. 

A riddle:

As I was going across London Bridge,[5]

I met old Daddy Gray.

I ate his meat and drank his blood

And threw his bones away.

Now, just who was Daddy Gray?

 

(An Oyster)

Oyster Pie[6]

1879

 

                Put a paste in a deep dish.  Wash the oysters, drain and put them in a dish, seasoning with butter, pepper, salt, and a little mace, if liked; then put on a layer of grated cracker.  When the dish is full, cover with paste or slips of paste laid across; then bake.  – Mrs. W___

This dish offers a layered effect which will help in thickening the filling of the pie.  Be generous with the butter that you layer between the layers, since this is uncooked filling, do not par bake the crust, it will take longer to cook.

Oyster Pie[7]

1909

 

                Three pints of oysters, butter size of walnut, salt, pepper.  To make a crust – 3 cups of flour, salt to taste, 1 cup lard, 2 teaspoons baking powder, ½ cup water to soften crust.  Drain the oysters; line one large  pie dish or two small ones with a crust, lay the oysters in dish and add butter in pieces and
other ingredients and a little of the juice.  Place top crust and bake.  Put what is left of the juice in a boiler, add one cup of milk and cream, a little butter, salt and pepper, and thicken with 2 teaspoons of flour.  This makes a nice dressing to use with the pie.

                                                              –              Mary Gawthrop

                This version still uses non – traditional measurements as the recipes developed before Fanny Farmer still were not all universal in the new measurement system.  Many cooks still cooked in the old style of adding a pinch of this and a dash of that and butter the size of an egg, or doorknob.  The measurement system developed by Fannie Farmer went a long way to transmitting recipes and information in a more accurate manner.  It also allowed the development of cost controls as economy has always been a huge part of running a kitchen, still many people cling to closely to recipes and many disasters have occurred because of it. 

Chesapeake Pie[8]

1940

 

Line a deep dish with pie pastry.  Put a layer of crab meat; season with red pepper, and grated lemon peel, mixed with the mashed yolks of hard boiled eggs, moistened with butter.  Then a layer of drained oysters, season with salt and pepper, mace, nutmeg.  Top with butter rubbed with flour.  Two more layers should be enough.  Pour in 1 cup of liquor, boiled and skimmed, and 1 cup of cream or milk.  Put a pie crust on, pierce it, and bake in a moderate oven until brown.

Anciently, this pie was decorated with balls, encircling the crust, made with chopped oysters, mixed with bread crumbs, grated lemon peel, yolks hard boiled eggs, mace, nutmeg and fried in butter.  They are worth the trouble.

 

                In this recipe we see the evolution of the dish.  It is transformed into a crab dish during the spring and summer and an oyster dish during the fall and winter.  There is a brief period in spring and fall where the seasons overlap, and you can always used canned oysters and crabmeat for the dish. 

Oyster Pie[9]

1946

 

                Pare and cut into dice 1 quart of potatoes, boil until soft in salt water.  Put a layer in bottom of a porcelain dish then layer the oysters, sprinkle with salt, pepper and a tablespoon butter cut into bits.  Continue these layers until dish is filled.  Pour over this ½ cup milk and oyster liquor.  Cover with light puff paste and bake in a quick over 20 minutes.  Serve in the dish in which it was baked.

                                                                                                                                Catherine Burns

                This recipe has the addition of potatoes added to the filling of oysters.  This may be due to the increased prices of oysters and the potatoes were added as filler.

Oyster Pie[10]

1950

 

6 Tbsp. Butter                                                                                   

1 C. Sliced Mushrooms

¾ C. Finely Cut Carrots                                                                 

7 Tbsp. Flour

1 ¼ Tsp. Salt                                                                                      

¼ Tsp. Nutmeg

¼ Tsp. Celery Salt                                                                           

3 ½ C. Milk

1 Pint Oysters                                                                                   

Dash
of Pepper

1 Tsp. Celery Top or Parsley (cut fine)

 

                Melt butter, add carrots and mushrooms.  Cook 2 minutes.  Stir in flour and seasoning, blend well, and add milk.  Cook over low heat until smooth and thick.  Add drained oysters and pour into small baking dishes or casserole.  Sprinkle with celery or parsley, cover with ordinary pie crust, make several slits in the crust and bake in hot oven 450 degrees for 10 minutes until brown, serve at once. 

 

                This pie is more in the line of a chicken pot pie.  It contains the carrots and mushrooms and celery. 

 

Cajun Oyster Pie[11]

1984

 

Flaky or Puff Pastry for Two 8 to 9 Inch Pie Crusts            

1 Pint Select Oysters, with Liquid

5 Tablespoons Butter                                                                    

1 Pound Roast Pork, Sliced or Shredded

3 Tablespoons Flour                                                                      

Salt to Taste

½ Bunch Scallions, Chopped                                                      

Cayenne Pepper to Taste

2 Tablespoons Chopped Parsley

 

                Preheat oven to 350 degrees.  Roll out 2/3 of the pastry and place into pie plate.  Prick pastry.  Melt butter.  Add flour and cook, stirring constantly until it turns the color of peanut butter.  Add scallions and cook 1 minute.  Add ½ to 1 cup of the oyster liquid, using enough to thicken the sauce.  Add pork and oysters.  Mix until blended and thickened.  Season with salt and cayenne pepper to taste.  Add chopped parsley.  Pour into prepared pie shell.  Roll out remaining pastry and place on top of pie, crimping edges.  Bake for 30 to 40 minutes or until golden brown.

 

                             –              Chef Bridget Meagher

                Chef Bridget Meagher’s New Orleans training is deliciously apparent in this recipe for Cajun oyster pie, a dish she brought to the 1983 governor’s tasting from Alexander’s in Roanoke, Virginia.

Virginia Ham and Oyster Pie[12]

1984

 

1 Pint Shucked Oysters, Drained                                                              

¼ Teaspoon Cayenne Pepper

¼ Pound Cooked Virginia Ham, Cubed                                 

¼ Cup Chopped Parsley

3 Tablespoons Butter or Margarine                                        

2 Tablespoons Lemon Juice

2 Cups Sliced Fresh Mushrooms                                                               BISCUIT TOPPING:

½ Cup Chopped Onion                                                                 

1 ½ Cups Flour

½ Cup Chopped Green Onion                                                   

2 ¼ Teaspoon Baking Powder

¼ Cup Flour                                                                                       

¼ Teaspoon Salt

½ Teaspoon Salt                                                                              

3 Tablespoons Margarine or Butter                                                                                             

½ Cup Milk

 

                Preheat oven to 400 degrees.  Dry oysters between absorbent paper.  Fry diced ham in butter or margarine until heated through.  Remove ham and drain.  Add mushrooms, onions, and green onion to butter and ham drippings in the frying pan.  Cover and simmer 5 minutes or until tender.  Blend in flour, salt and pepper.  Stir in oysters, ham, parsley, and lemon juice.  Grease a 9 inch pie plate.  Turn oyster mixture into pie plate.  To make biscuit topping, sift baking soda, flour, and salt together.  Cut in butter until mixture is like coarse crumbs.  Add milk all at once.  Mix just to a soft dough.  Turn onto lightly floured surface.  Knead gently 5 to 6 strokes.  Shape into a ball.  Roll out a 9 inch circle to fit on top of pie plate.  Cover oysters with biscuit topping.  Bake for 20 to 25 minutes or until topping are lightly browned.

                                             –              Virginia Marine Products Brand

 

This is a modified chicken pot pie, with the exception of oysters and ham instead of chicken.  This adds a biscuit topping and rather than a traditional pie crust. 

 

Oyster and Ham Pie[13]

1998

 

Pastry Dough for a Double – Crust Pie                                   

Salt and Freshly Ground Pepper, to Taste

3 Tablespoons Butter                                                                    

Pinch of Ground Mace

3 Tablespoons Flour                                                                      

¾ Cup Grated Swiss Cheese

1 Pint Shucked Oysters, drained and Liquor Reserved   

1 ½ Cups Minced Country Ham

Heavy whipping Cream as Needed                                        

1 Egg, Beaten

1 Tablespoon Water

 

                Preheat the oven to 425 degrees.

                Prepare the pastry dough.  Divide the dough into two parts, one slightly larger than the other.  Roll out a larger piece and line a 9 inch pie pan.  Prick the bottom of the shell with a fork.  Press aluminum foil into the bottom and sides of the shell and cover the foil with pie weight or raw rice or dried beans to weight the pastry and prevent the crust from swelling during baking.  Bake for 8 minutes.  Remove the foil and weights and continue to bake for an additional 5 minutes.  Let cool slightly before filling. 

                Reduce heat to 375 degrees.

                Melt the butter in a heavy bottomed pan.  Whisk in the flour and cook, stirring, for 2 – 3 minutes.  Remove from the heat. 

                Measure the oyster liquor and add cream mixture into the butter flour mixture.  Return the pan to the heat and stir constantly until the mixture comes to a boil.  Reduce the heat and simmer for 5 minutes longer, stirring often.  Season with the salt, pepper and mace.  Stir in the cheese to melt. 

                Arrange the oysters and ham in the crust.  Pour in the cream sauce and gently blend with the oysters and ham. 

                The introduction of ham makes this version of the dish more of a New England Oyster stew enveloped in pastry.  It is an excellent option and you can include potatoes into the mixture as well.   

 

Oyster – Beef Pie[14]

2000

 

1 9 Inch Pie Crust                                                                            

¼ Cup Flour

1 Pound Sirloin                                                                                

1 Shallot, Chopped

1 Pint Oysters                                                                                   

Salt and Pepper, To Taste

¼ Cup Butter, Melted                                                                   

1 Cup Beef Stock

 

¨       Preheat oven to 425 degrees.

¨       Pound the steak until thin and cut into strips to hold ½ an oyster.

¨       Cut the oysters in half.  Roll the steak around the oyster and then dip in melted butter.  Dredge in butter.

¨       Place the rolls in a pan very tightly.  Fill the pan with stock to which the shallot has been added.

¨       Cover the oyster rolls and stock with the pie crust.  Cut a hole in the top to vent the steam.

¨       Place in an oven and bake for 15 minutes at 425 degrees.

¨       Lower oven temperature to 350 degrees and bake for 45 minutes or until top is browned.

 

The Oyster Packing House, Mt. Vernon

 

                A childhood highlight of the rural way of life in southern Maryland for state senator Bernie Fowler occurred when the winter oyster fleet came into port from the Patuxent River, “forty or sixty boats, all jockeying for position to unload in the sunset,” he recalled.  “there were 135 shuckers at warren Denton’s oyster house, blacks, and they would sing, sing more as they got tired, solid harmony … You can’t know how enriching that was,” Fowler told Chesapeake Bay writer Tom Horton.

                Times have changed on Broom’s Island at Calvert County’s last oyster packing house, established in 1923.  Warren Denton is dead, as are most of the Patuxent’s oysters.  In the winter or 1992 – 93 not one oyster boat unloaded at Denton’s Packing House, “not one bushel,” says Norman Darrell, who bought the business in 1984.

                Oysters are now trucked to this packing house from Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, “and from anywhere else we can get ‘em,” says Dorell.  The shuckers number about 25, and most are at retirement age.  As for the old gospel tunes, he says that, too, is a relic of the past: “They’re hurtin’ too bad financially to want to sing about anything.

                Maryland’s fabled oyster industry, which peaked at 15 million bushels in 1984 – 85, may finally be near an end.  The harvest had dropped to 1.5 million bushels in 1986 and plunged to under 150,000 bushels in 1992 – 93.  It could be the point of no return, although some experts believe the oyster could make another of its mysterious comebacks.

                William Hopkins (Hop) Fisher, 80, operates one of the last old fashioned oyster packing houses in Maryland and the very last on the Wicomico River.  The white packing house with the tin roof at Webster’s cove Harbor in Mt. Vernon, on the lower Eastern Shore, still uses potbellied coal stoves as the preferred way of heating.  And opened oyster shells are still dropped through a “drop hole” in a cement work table at each shucking station, rather than being carried out of the building on a conveyor belt to a single high pile of oyster shells outside.  

                Oyster boats no longer unload at Webster’s Cove, because there are not enough live oysters in nearby Monie Bay to justify working the beds.  “It’s a dying way of life down here unless nature brings the oyster back,” says Fisher, a native of Mt. Vernon.  “It’s a bad season (1992 – 93) as I can remember, and that’s going back a long time.  Oysters don’t come to the plant like they used to.  We have to go to them, and that means trying to find them, if you can.  It’s rough.”

                Fisher employs fifteen to twenty shuckers.  Wearing long rubber aprons, rubber gloves and boots, they stand on low wooden pallets to keep off the cold, wet cement floor.  Some used to shuck standing inside cutaway barrels, or in three sided wooden stalls for warmth.  Many plants have been modernized with forced hot air heat and stainless steel work stations.

                The method of opening an oyster, however, has changed little over the years.  The shucker stands the shell on edge and gives it a sharp whack with an oyster knife and the meat removed, surgically and swiftly, with a swipe of the dull blade and plopped into a gallon tin.  Shuckers are paid by the gallon. 

                “Dependable oyster shuckers are harder and harder to find, because this is seasonal work and people want full time jobs,” says Fisher.  “If we shuck 100 gallons a day, I’m satisfied.  We used to do 300.”

                Upriver, the visible from fisher’s Mt. Vernon Packing Company, is what was once Fisher’s Bivalve Packing Company.  Now closed, the isolated oyster house at the dead end of a gravel road has an abandoned, ghostly look to it reminiscent of the old steamboat landing wharves fallen into ruin.  “Someone came in and ‘borrowed’ my stainless steel tanks and equipment,” says Fisher sarcastically.  He has rented out the place in past summers for the soft shell crab operation.

                Fisher began operating his last packing house at Webster’s Cove about forty four years ago, although it was established there earlier.  A fisher and Hopkins family tradition could be coming to an end here, he is sad to admit: “My father, grandfather, and great grandfather were watermen.  My family came to Mt. Vernon in the early 1700’s, but I may be the last of them to carry on this way of life.  My sin [Charles, 52] drives a school bus.  I’d give the business to him tomorrow if he wanted it. 

                The possibility of a townhouse development with a fancy marina and restaurant replacing his Mt. Vernon Packing House seems remote to him, given the financial climate of the early 1900’s, but who would have imagined townhouses at a nearby watermen’s haven of wenona, on isolated deal island, where most of the Tangier sound oysters are also dead?  Asked how “Ye Olde Webster’s Cove Pointe in Mt. Vernon’s” sounds, Fisher looks around and shakes his head at his empty pier. “I’d rather see the oysters come back,” he says.

                                                                                                                                –              John Sherwood

                                                                                                                                                Maryland’s Vanishing Lives 

                “Them oysters don’t belong to the tongers any more then to us,” Captain Pete said.  “The state of Maryland ain’t got no right to give them to the tongers.”

                “Them’s the Lord’s oysters,” Dad said.  “The good Lord put them there for us who could get them, whether its tongers or drudgers.”

                “If them’s the Lord’s oysters, why don’t we sail across them beds come tomorrow, and fill the Kessie Price right up to her gills?”  Charley said.

                “Yeah, why don’t we?”  the other schoonerman said.  “Ain’t no tongers or patrol boats coming out in that nor’west wind.”

                “The inspectors will be having their oysters in the bar in Annapolis,” Dad said.

                “I’m a religious man,” Captain Pete said.  “I don’t aim to steal if I can help it.”

                “It’s just like George says.” Charlie said.  Them’s the Lord’s oysters and the Lord is a cheerful giver.  Don’t it say that in the Bible?  We’d just be taking what He wants to give us.  The Lord helps those that help Themselves.”

–          Gilbert Byron

 

Applewood Bacon and Smoked Oyster Pie

Christopher Gobbett

2009

 

2 Artichoke Hearts                                                                         

1 C. Heavy Cream

1 Slice Applewood Bacon                                                            

20 Smoked Oysters

¼ C. Leeks                                                                                          

1 Diced Tomato

2 Oz.White Wine                                                                            

Oil

2 Egg Yolks                                                                                         

Puff Pastry Dough

Corn Starch

 

This recipe is a version of the oyster roast we used to make at the Cosmos Club.  I used the smoked oysters as opposed to fresh oysters since the oysters cost so much and the smoked oysters add a smoked element to the dish that is lost on using fresh oyster.  This is also picked up with the addition of the apple wood smoked bacon.   


[1] The Williamsburg Art of Cookery or Accomplished Gentlewomen’s Companion by Ms. Helen Bullock: Colonial Williamsburg Inc. 1938

[2] The Carolina Housewife by Sarah Rutledge: University of South Carolina Press 1979

[3] Fifty years in a Maryland Kitchen: 430 authentic regional recipes, Ms. B.C. Howard, 1873 J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

[4] Fifty years in a Maryland Kitchen: 430 authentic regional recipes, Ms. B.C. Howard, 1873 J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

[5] A Faraway Time & Place: Lore of the Eastern Shore by George Carey, Robert B. Luce Inc. Washington-New York 1971

[6] Housekeeping in Old Virginia: Marion Cabell Tyree, John P. Morton and Company Louisville, KY. 1879

[7] Recipe Book edited by the London Grove Branch of County Auxiliary for the Benefit of Chester County Hospital: The Oxford News Print 1909 

 

[8] Chesapeake Bay Seafood: Sherwood Brothers Incorporated: 1940 Ferdinand C. Latrobe Printed by The Horn – Shafer Company, Baltimore, Maryland

[9] Glen Rock Cookbook: Published by The Ladies of “The Friendly Helpers” Bible Class of Trinity Reformed Sunday school Glen Rock, Penna 1946

[10] Buck’s The Artists’ County Cooks: A Gourmet’s Guide to estimable Comestibles with Pictures by The Women’s auxiliary of trinity Chapel: college Offset Press 1950

[11] The Great Taste of Virginia Seafood: a Cookbook and Guide to Virginia Waters:  Written and Edited by Mary Reid Barrow with Robyn Browder; Schiffer Publishing 1984

[12] The Great Taste of Virginia Seafood: a Cookbook and Guide to Virginia Waters:  Written and Edited by Mary Reid Barrow with Robyn Browder; Schiffer Publishing 1984

[13] Chesapeake Bay Cooking with John Shields: John Shields 1998, Broadway Books

[14] Chesapeake’s Bounty by Katie Moose:  Conduit Press 2000

About midatlanticcooking

Chef in the Mid-Atlantic region for over 20 years. Painter, writer and traveler.
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3 Responses to Chesapeake Oyster Pie

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